In this study the instructional materials were based on elementary arithmetic operations of integer including addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, bracket (subtraction formula), bracket (multiplication formula
), and two-step addition and subtraction.
Using the multiplication formula
of Gauss (1.3), (2.2)-(2.3) can be written as
All that they give you is a complicated multiplication formula
and referred me to my gas bill.
This multiplication formula
is part of the electronic spreadsheet's mathematical ability, and is programmed by the user to automatically perform the calculation.
We think that the above (11) complex unit multiplication formulas
can be written in a simpler way as: