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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a group of peoples in India (the Munda proper, Santal, Ho, Kharia, Korku, Birhor, Bhumij, Juang, Savara [Sora, Saora], Gadaba) who live mainly in southern Bihar and in Orissa and West Bengal. Total population, approximately 5.7 million (1971, estimate).

The Munda speak Munda languages; many also speak Hindi, Bengali, Oriya, and other languages of neighboring peoples. The Munda religion contains a mixture of animistic and Hindu beliefs. The Munda are the descendants of the ancient population of India, which was driven into the mountainous forested regions of central India by later arrivals—the Dravidians and, later, the Indo-Aryan peoples. Munda tribal groups differ greatly in their socioeconomic and ethnic development. Alongside developed groups (Munda proper, Santal), there are groups (Juang, Birhor) that have only recently begun to shift from hunting and gathering to primitive agriculture and that retain many survivals of the clan and tribal system. Most Munda engage in farming (rice, millet, beans, vegetables), although hunting and gathering continue to play an important role. Well-developed crafts include pottery-making, wickerwork, and woodworking. Some Munda work in the mining and metallurgical industries.


Narody Iuzhnoi Azii Moscow, 1963.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
One Hameedullah was shot dead along with his father and two sons on their arrival at the hujra of Siraj Khan at Gosum Munda.
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'Timeframe for the completion of project cannot be given' he said, adding that Munda dam will generate about 840MW electricity after its completion.
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Aspect map of Munda Dam watershed reveals the slope direction from East to Southeast.
The unit has written a letter to the vice- chancellor of the University on Thursday requesting to rename the central library, convention centre and stadium after BR Ambedkar, APJ Abdul Kalam and Birsa Munda respectively.
The Munda villages Tribal lifestyle, stunning silver jewellery and unique festivals What: Jharkhand is home to more than 32 tribes, of which the Mundas are the most popular.
Experts chose Munda Dam as the second main source of water for GWSSP.
He said Munda cabinet's decision to dissolve the house 'does not stand' as JMM had yesterday itself announced its decision to pull out its support to the BJP-led government over the accord on rotational leadership of the coalition and had faxed a letter to the Raj Bhavan even before the cabinet met.
NEW DELHI: Tribal leader Karia Munda of the Hindu-extremist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) was elected deputy speaker of the Lok Sabha yesterday.
Damon and his father meet up at last in a hospital tent near the bloody battlefields at Munda, where the father has been fighting as a centurion with Caesar's army.