The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the remains of a settlement from the Aeneolithic period and the Bronze and early Iron ages in southern Afghanistan, 55 km northwest of the city of Kandahar. It was excavated from 1951 to 1958 by a French expedition. The remains of habitations of settled farmers were discovered in the lowest levels of the site (late fourth millennium B.C.). These farmers used a potter’s wheel to produce painted pottery similar to that of Iran (Sialk). Copper was known to this culture.

Terra-cotta statuettes and stone seals have been found in the succeeding level, which dates to the middle of the third millennium B.C. Cast copper and bronze objects and group burial chambers have also been found. Links with cultures of Pakistan (Quetta) and Middle Asia (Geoksiur and Karatepe) can be traced.

In the late third millennium and the early second millennium B.C., the Mundigak culture reached the height of its development. Stone sculpture and remains of monumental architecture (a temple and the residence of a local ruler) have been discovered. Vessels from this period are decorated with depictions of animals and plants. Links with India (Harappa) and Iran (Hissar) have been noted. In the second millennium B.C., Mundigak’s culture went into decline, and its area of settlement decreased in size. Pottery was once again made by hand. The upper levels of the Mundigak site date to the middle of the first millennium B.C.


Masson, V. M. Sredniaia Aziia i Drevnii Vostok. Moscow-Leningrad, 1964.
Casal, J. M. Fouilles de Mundigak, vols. 1–2. Paris, 1961.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Archaeologists have also noted Turkmen-related elements at Mundigak, Afghanistan, around 35 kilometres northwest of Kandahar and over 400 kilometres east of Shahr-i Sokhta, in the eastern part of the Helmand river basin.
What has drawn such attention to Sarazm is that this site seems isolated in the valley and yet has yielded numerous objects whose styles relate to different archaeological cultures located hundreds of kilometres away Many of these objects consist of ceramics stylistically linked to Turkmenistan to the west and to southern Afghanistan and Pakistan to the south, including Mundigak. Additional remains such as stone and metal objects corroborate these connections and also are similar to materials from Shahr-i Sokhta.
One of the earliest traces of pottery in prehistoric times has been found in Mundigak, crossroad of trade routs, near Kandahar.
Casal thus decided to pay a visit to the Southern Indus Valley, and he turned to different sites located in the Indus valley, especially Mundigak and Amri.