Munich Pact

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Munich Pact,

1938. In the summer of 1938, Chancellor Hitler of Germany began openly to support the demands of Germans living in the Sudetenland (see SudetesSudetes
, Czech Sudety, Ger. Sudeten, mountain range, along the border of the Czech Republic and Poland, extending c.185 mi (300 km) between the Elbe and Oder rivers. It is continued on the W by the Erzgebirge and on the E by the Carpathians.
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) of CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovakia
, Czech Československo , former federal republic, 49,370 sq mi (127,869 sq km), in central Europe. On Jan. 1, 1993, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (see Slovakia) became independent states and Czechoslovakia ceased to exist.
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 for an improved status. In September, Hitler demanded self-determination for the Sudetenland. Disorders broke out in Czechoslovakia, and martial law was proclaimed. Meetings between Hitler and Prime Minister Neville ChamberlainChamberlain, Neville
(Arthur Neville Chamberlain), 1869–1940, British statesman; son of Joseph Chamberlain and half-brother of Sir Austen Chamberlain. The first half of his career was spent in business and, after 1911, in the city government of Birmingham, of which he
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 of Great Britain, first at Berchtesgaden and then at Bad Godesberg, failed to achieve a satisfactory agreement. War seemed unavoidable. After appeals by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Benito Mussolini, a conference met at Munich (Sept. 29). Great Britain was represented by Chamberlain and Halifax, France by Edouard Daladier and Georges Bonnet, Italy by Mussolini and Galeazzo Ciano, Germany by Hitler and Ribbentrop. Neither Czechoslovakia nor the Soviet Union, which had offered aid to the threatened country under the terms of a 1935 treaty, was invited to the conference. England and France quickly surrendered to Hitler's demands, and the Munich Pact was signed Sept. 30 (but dated Sept. 29). It permitted immediate occupation by Germany of the Sudetenland, but also provided for plebiscites, which were never carried out. France and Britain guaranteed the new Czechoslovak boundaries. When Chamberlain arrived in London, he announced that he had secured "peace in our time." Abandoned by its allies, Czechoslovakia gave in to the terms, and President Beneš, the target of Hitler's most venomous attacks, resigned. Poland and Hungary, for whose minorities promises had been made at Munich, were allowed to seize, respectively, the TeschenTeschen
, Czech Tĕšín, Pol. Cieszyn, former principality (c.850 sq mi/2,200 sq km), now divided between the Czech Republic and Poland. Teschen was its chief town.
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 district and parts of SlovakiaSlovakia
or the Slovak Republic,
Slovak Slovensko , republic (2015 est. pop. 5,439,000), 18,917 sq mi (48,995 sq km), central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic in the west, by Austria in the southwest, by Hungary in the south, by Ukraine in the east,
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. The Munich Pact became a symbol of appeasement and shook the confidence of Eastern Europeans in the good faith of the Western democracies. World War II began about one year after its signing.

Bibliography

See J. W. Wheeler-Bennett, Munich: Prologue to Tragedy (1948, repr. 1966); studies by K. Eubank (1963), F. L. Loewenheim, ed. (1965), and D. E. Lee, ed. (1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
When the Nazis ignored the Munich Agreement and seized Prague in March 1939, it confirmed a commitment to violence and showed the British-brokered settlement was held in contempt.
Then when the Nazis ignored the Munich Agreement and seized Prague in March 1939, it confirmed their commitment to violence, and indicated the settlement arranged by Britain was held in contempt.
And in a mere six years, his appeasement policy toward the Nazi Germany regime would reach its pinnacle with the 1938 Munich Agreement, which Hitler discarded six months later by destroying the rump Czechoslovakia and bringing it under the control of the Third Reich.
They had signed the Munich Agreement, which the Czechs and Slovaks call the Munich betrayal.
For the Czechs, however, these periods also include the Nazi-run Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia in WWII and the signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938.Who are the top important Czechs and Slovaks?Another part of the survey touched upon the most significant people from Czechoslovak history.
Actually, we did - in the Munich Agreement - a worthless piece of paper.
History tells us the terrible outcome of the Munich Agreement, but Harris keeps us guessing about the fate of our two young friends." JOCELYN MCCLURG
In the wake of the Munich agreement, 60 million people would die in World War II, including a third of my own people, six million Jews murdered in the Holocaust by the Nazis and their collaborators.
Netanyahu told world leaders, defense officials and diplomats at the conference that the nuclear deal signed with Iran in 2015 has "unleashed a dangerous Iranian tiger in our region and beyond." He pointed out that the agreement was similar to the infamous 1938 "Munich Agreement" that Western powers signed with Adolf Hitler in an attempt to stave off war in Europe, shortly before World War II broke out.
In his speech, Netanyahu drew on the historical significance of Munich and the Munich Agreement in the rise of Nazism in the 1930's and the attempts made by world powers at the time to appease the regime under Adolf Hitler.
Netanyahu, a staunch critic of the 2015 Iran nuclear deal, used the occasion to draw a parallel between the 1938 Munich Agreement, seen as a failed attempt to appease Nazi Germany and the 2015 Iran nuclear deal.
The next meeting will take place on February 23 in the Cumberland Street Day Centre, Dumfries, at 7.30pm when Dr David Dutton will speak on Munich after 80 Years with reference to the Munich Agreement of 1938.