Murad II

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Murad II,

1403–51, Ottoman sultan (1421–51), son and successor of Muhammad I to the throne of the Ottoman Empire (Turkey). He was opposed at his accession by a pretender, Mustafa, who rapidly gained control over most of the Ottoman possessions in Europe. After defeating his rival, Murad unsuccessfully laid siege (1422) to Constantinople. In a war with Venice he seized (1430) Salonica, thus proving Ottoman naval power, and invaded Greece. In the north Murad fought the resistance led by John HunyadiHunyadi, John
, Hung. Hunyadi János, c.1385–1456, Hungarian national hero, leader of the resistance against the Ottomans. He was chosen (1441) voivode [governor] of Transylvania under King Uladislaus I (Ladislaus III of Poland) and won numerous victories over
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. Murad sought to retire from public life on several occasions, but each time was recalled by the pressure of events. In 1444 he won the great victory of Varna against the crusading forces led by King Ladislaus IIILadislaus III,
1424–44, king of Poland (1434–44) and, as Uladislaus I, king of Hungary (1440–44), son of Ladislaus II. He led two crusades against the Ottomans; the first (1443) was highly successful, but the second ended with his defeat and death in the battle
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 of Poland and Hungary. Murad was a patron of poetry and learning, and his court was a cultural center. His son Muhammad II succeeded him.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Surviving the Turkish conquest of the city in 1393, they were returned to the RilaMonastery in 1469 with the permission of Sultan Murad II.
Some of the elite members of the Otto-royal family were: Devlet Hatun, married to Yyldyrym Bayezid Han; Emine Hatun, daughter of Dulkadiroy-lu Mehmed Suli, married Mehmed Ecelebi Han; Alime Hatun married Murad II, Murad Han; GE-lbahar Sultan, daughter of Dulkadiroy-lu Bozkurt, married Bayezid II; and Saty Hatun married Fatih Sultan Mehmed Han.
As a child, he and his younger brother were sent by their father, Vlad II, as hostages of Sultan Murad II to Constantinople, where they were held for six years and trained in warfare.
The book divided in 12 chapters, each profusely illustrated with diagrams and tables in red and black, marginal notes and comments, catchwords, colophon signed and dated, was dedicated to Sultan Murad II in 1423.
Colin Imber's "Crusade of Varna, 1443-1445" does a fine job unraveling the complex strands that formed the campaign in which Sultan Murad II defeated the Christian host led by King Vladislav of Poland and Hungary.
Sultan Murad II conquered the city in 1430 initiating a long period of relative Ottoman tolerance.
At the port of Varna the Turkish forces of Sultan Murad II devastated the Crusader armies, which had started their campaign against them a year before when Cyriacus was still in Dubrovnik.
Built during the reign of Sultan Murad II in the second half of the 14th century, it has twice been restored, after being damaged by earthquakes in the 18th and 19th centuries.
After internecine fighting among the sons of Beyazit, Murad II recovered the lost Ottoman lands and expanded their territory in southeastern Europe, paving the way for a fresh assault on Constantinople.
His particular interest lies with Mahmud of Ghazna (Ghaznavid dynasty, d.1030), Murad II (Ottoman dynasty, d.
October 1st, 1938 The German forces enter the Sudetenland October 4th, 1948 Arthur, Whittam Brown, pioneer aviator, dies October 18th, 1748 The Treaty of Aix la Chapelle is signed, ending the War of the Austrian Succession October 19th, 1448 The Hungarians under John Hunyadi are defeated by the Ottoman Sultan Murad II at Kosovo October 22nd, 1798 Slave rebel Toussaint L'Ouverture drives the last French agent out of Santo Domingo October 27th, 1798 The French invasion of Ireland collapses October 29th, 1618 Sir Walter Ralegh is executed