murder

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murder,

criminal homicidehomicide
, in law, the taking of human life. Homicides that are neither justifiable nor excusable are considered crimes. A criminal homicide committed with malice is known as murder, otherwise it is called manslaughter.
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, usually distinguished from manslaughtermanslaughter,
homicide committed without justification or excuse but distinguished from murder by the absence of the element of malice aforethought. Modern criminal statutes usually divide it into degrees, the most common distinction being between voluntary and involuntary
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 by the element of malicemalice,
in law, an intentional violation of the law of crimes or torts that injures another person. Malice need not involve a malignant spirit or the definite intent to do harm.
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 aforethought. The most direct case of malicious intent occurs when the killer is known to have adopted the deliberate intent to commit the homicidal act at some time before it is actually committed. Very often, however, the law presumes the existence of malice aforethought from the circumstances, and it does not necessarily have to be proved directly. The most clear-cut case of this presumption of malice is when the killer inadvertently murders a person other than his intended victim. Here, malice is presumed if the killer intended to inflict serious bodily injury, or if he behaved with such reckless disregard of the safety of others as to betray a "depraved heart." Likewise, a killing incidentally committed in the course of a felonyfelony
, any grave crime, in contrast to a misdemeanor, that is so declared in statute or was so considered in common law. In early English law a felony was a heinous act that canceled the perpetrator's feudal rights and forfeited his lands and goods to the king, thus depriving
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 (e.g., robbery or rape) is deemed murder; if the felony was accomplished by more than one person, all are equally guilty of the murder, not only the actual killer. A murder that is incidental to a misdemeanormisdemeanor,
in law, a minor crime, in contrast to a felony. At common law a misdemeanor was a crime other than treason or a felony. Although it might be a grave offense, it did not affect the feudal bond or take away the offender's property. By the 19th cent.
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, however, is treated as manslaughter. Most states prescribe various degrees of murder. Murder in the first degree generally is a calculated act of slaying committed with malice aforethought, often requiring aggravated circumstances such as extreme brutality. It receives the severest penalty, often life imprisonment or capital punishmentcapital punishment,
imposition of a penalty of death by the state. History

Capital punishment was widely applied in ancient times; it can be found (c.1750 B.C.) in the Code of Hammurabi.
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. Second-degree murder is a homicide committed with malice, but without deliberation or premeditation. A homicide committed without malice (as in negligent motor vehicle operation) or in the "heat of passion" (as in a quarrel which escalates to violence) is generally considered manslaughter. In some states, certain crimes that are defined as murder of a lower degree approximate more closely the definition of manslaughter in common lawcommon law,
system of law that prevails in England and in countries colonized by England. The name is derived from the medieval theory that the law administered by the king's courts represented the common custom of the realm, as opposed to the custom of local jurisdiction that
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. In some cases, it is difficult to determine whether malice aforethought was present; consequently the governor of a state (or other chief executive) not infrequently uses his power of commutation of sentence to revoke the death penalty, and in some states the appellate courts automatically review all convictions of murder.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/

What does it mean when you dream about murder?

Murder symbolizes aggression and repressed rage at oneself or others. If the dreamer is murdered, the release of obstacles in one’s life or a major transformation may be indicated. (See also

Kill/Killing).

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.

Murder

Abimelech
slew his 70 brothers to become ruler. [O.T.: Judges 9:5]
Barnwell, George
noble motives cause him to murder uncle. [Br. Lit.: The London Merchant; Barnhart, 695]
Beaumont, Jeremiah
kills the man who had seduced his wife; he is murdered by an enemy and his wife kills herself. [Am. Lit.: Warren World Enough and Time in Magill II, 1160]
Bluebeard
closets away bodies of former wives. [Fr. Fairy Tale: Harvey, 97–98]
Bluebeard
(Henri Désiré Landru, 1869–1922) executed for murders of ten women (1915–18). [Fr. Hist.: EB (1972), XIII, 661
Boston Strangler
(Albert De Salvo, 1932—) strangled thirteen women between 1962 and 1964. [Am. Hist.: Misc.]
Busiris
murders predecessor to gain Egyptian throne. [Gk. Myth: Avery, 231]
Cain
jealous, slays Abel. [O.T.: Genesis 4:8]
Cenci, Beatrice
with brothers, arranges murder of cruel father. [Br. Lit.: The Cenci]
Claudius
murders brother to gain throne. [Br. Lit.: Hamlet]
Danaides
slew husbands on wedding night. [Gk. Myth.: Kravitz, 74]
Donatello
throws Miriam’s persecutor over cliff to death. [Am. Lit.: The Marble Faun]
Donegild
killed by Alla for abandoning his wife and son at sea. [Br. Lit.: Canterbury Tales, “Man of Law’s Tale”]
Franceschini, Count
brutally murders his estranged young wife and her parents. [Br. Poetry: Browning The Ring and the Book]
Gilligan, Amy Archer
poisons 48 elderly people in nursing homes. [Am. Hist.: Elizabeth S. Baxter Newington; Am. Drama: Kesselring Arsenic and Old Lace]
Griffiths, Clyde
young social climber lets his pregnant mistress drown in a boating accident and is convicted of murder. [Am. Lit.: An American Tragedy in Hart, 30]
Hagen
stabs Siegfried in back; kills Gunther. [Ger. Opera: Wagner, Götterdämmerung, Westerman, 245]
Hines, Doc
kills Joe’s father; lets mother die in childbirth. [Am. Lit.: Light in August]
Ibbetson, Peter
a confessed murderer, yet a sensitive, romantic man. [Br. Lit.: Peter Ibbetson, Magill I, 736–738]
In Cold Blood
nonfiction novel about a brutal, senseless murder in Kansas. [Am. Lit.: In Cold Blood]
Injun Joe
stabs town doctor to death. [Am. Lit.: Tom Sawyer]
Ixion
first murderer of a relative in classical mythology. [Gk. Myth.: Zimmerman, 142; Rom. Lit.: Aeneid]
Jack the Ripper
killed and disemboweled 9 London prostitutes (1888–1889). [Br. Hist.: Brewer Note-Book, 463]
Julian, St.
mistakenly kills his parents in their sleep. [Fr. Lit.: Flaubert “The Legend of St. Julian the Hospitaler”]
Kenilworth
intrigue in the court of Elizabeth I. [Br. Lit.: Scott Kenilworth in Magill I, 469]
M
motion picture about a child-murderer hunted down by organized criminal element. [Ger. Cinema: Halliwell]
Macbeth
became king of Scotland through a series of ruthless murders, but was ultimately slain by his enemy, Macduff. [Br. Lit.: Shakespeare Macbeth]
Medea
murdered her two children. [Gk. Lit.: Century Classical, 684–685]
Michele
murders wife’s lover; hides body under cloak. [Ital. Opera: Puccini, The Cloak, Westerman, 362–363]
Modo
fiend presiding over homicide. [Br. Lit.: King Lear]
Mordred, Sir
illegitimate son and treacherous killer of Arthur. [Br. Lit.: Le Morte d’Arthur]
Orestes
commits matricide to avenge father’s honor. [Gk. Lit.: Electra]
Othello
believing false evidence of Desdemona’s infidelity, he strangles her. [Br. Lit.: Shakespeare Othello]
Ourang-Outang
brutally kills a mother and her daughter. [Am. Lit.: Poe The Murders in the Rue Morgue]
Porgy
murders Crown, who tried to take Bess. [Am. Opera: Gershwin, Porgy and Bess, Westerman, 556]
Raskolnikov
plans and carries out the murder of an old woman pawnbroker. [Russ. Lit.: Crime and Punishment]
Rogêt, Marie
girl assaulted and murdered, her corpse thrown into the Seine. Am. Lit.: Poe The Mystery of Marie Rogêt]
Rudge
murders master and gardener. [Br. Lit.: Barnaby Rudge]
Sikes, Bill
hanged for killing of Nancy. [Br. Lit.: Oliver Twist]
Smith, George Joseph
dispatched wives and lovers in bathtubs in 1910s. [Br. Hist.: Wallechinsky, 274]
Spandrell
cynic opposed to fascist Everard Webley attacks and kills him, then commits suicide. [Br. Lit.: Huxley Point Counter Point in Magill I, 760]
Sparafucile
his killing of Gilda fulfills curse against Rigoletto. [Ital. Opera: Verdi, Rigoletto, Westerman, 300]
Thuggee
religious devotion to Kali involves human strangulation. [Indian Hist.: Brewer Dictionary, 1080]
Tyrrel, James
at the king’s behest, arranges the deaths of two young princes in the Tower. [Br. Drama: Shakespeare Richard III]
Allusions—Cultural, Literary, Biblical, and Historical: A Thematic Dictionary. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

murder

the unlawful premeditated killing of one human being by another
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
First, accomplice killer David Brooks speaks to us "live" about his experiences "as a drug-addicted, psychotic teen murderer in the early seventies." On the second level, Brooks hands the audience two files of "nonfiction" stories that introduce serial killer Dean Corll and another accomplice, Wayne.
We become complicit with murderers when we replicate their deeds.
Gathering in front of ystanbul's prestigious Galatasaray High School, located on ystiklal Street in central ystanbul, dozens of group members and relatives of murdered women shouted slogans such as "We will stop the murder of women" and "Protection for women and strict penalties for their murderers."
"Martyrs and Murderers: The Guise Family and the Making of Europe" tells the story of this family, whose ambitions for power gave them bloodlines to the throne in many of the major European countries.
Talking to journalists here on Saturday, Mumtaz Bhutto said that two years have been passed since the murder of Benazir Bhutto but neither her murderers were arrested nor case registered.
Consequent upon the indignation aroused in the City and East End at the failure of police so far to track the murderer or murderers of the five or six unfortunate creatures selected as the victims, several offers of reward for the capture of the assassin have been announced today.
England's top judge has renewed his call for shorter prison sentences, saying murderers are being jailed for too long.
Two other murderers and a man convicted of manslaughter are also on the run from Leyhill jail in Gloucestershire.
Many killers terrorise their victims, who helplessly await their death, so I feel it is fitting that the treatment of these cold-blooded murderers is equal.
Murderers already serving life-means-life sentences include people such as Dennis Nilsen, who killed 15 men, and ``House of Horrors'' murderer Rosemary West, convicted in 1995 of killing 10 women and children, including her own daughter.
Prof Wilson, who was the country's youngest ever prison governor, said that although it was common for murderers to kill themselves it was unusual for them to do so many years after their trial.
We live in a world populated by regimes run by axe murderers who have targeted many of our critical industries (and steel is one of the most critical) with a view toward not only acquiring and using them against us, but actually stripping us of the ability to defend ourselves.