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(Equality), a counterrevolutionary bourgeois-nationalist party in Azerbaijan. It was organized in Baku in 1911 as the Musavat Muslim Democratic Party, and its founders and leaders included M. Rasul-zade, G. Sharif-zade, and A. Kiazimzade. The party’s program called for the creation of a single Muslim state under the aegis of Turkey that would include Azerbaijan. During World War I, however, the party’s leaders urged Muslims to bring the war “to a victorious end,” which in effect meant that they had abandoned their former Pan-Islamic and Pan-Turkic ideas.

After the February Revolution of 1917, the party called for a “Russian democratic republic” without national autonomy. In June 1917 it merged with the Turkic Party of Federalists (the merger was confirmed at the First Congress of Musavat on Oct. 26 [Nov. 8], 1917) and began to call itself the Turkic Democratic Party of Federalists and Musavatists. The congress adopted, with minor changes, the program of the Federalists’ party, according to which the future Russian state was envisaged as “a federative democratic republic based on national autonomy.” By preaching nationalism and class harmony within the Azerbaijani nation and stirring up enmity between peoples, Musavat sought to deflect the Azerbaijani working people from the revolutionary struggle. The social composition of Musavat was not homogeneous. In addition to the big bourgeoisie and landowners, it included the petite bourgeoisie, the nationalist intelligentsia, and the backward strata of the peasantry, who had been deceived by propaganda.

The party’s central committee included M. Rasul-zade, G. Gudzhinskii, N. Usubbekov, and G. Agaev. Its main press organ was the newspaper Istiglal (Independence). Members of Musavat joined the Soviet of Workers’ Deputies with the aim of strengthening their influence among the Turkic masses. During the Civil War of 1918–20, Musavat was one of the chief counterrevolutionary forces in Azerbaijan. After Soviet power was established in Baku on Oct. 31 (Nov. 13), 1917, the Musavatists staged a revolt on Mar. 18,1918, but were defeated. In early May 1918 they formed a government in Tbilisi, and on May 27, 1918, they proclaimed the independence of Azerbaijan. In June 1918 the government was transferred to Giandzha and, supported by British interventionists, it continued its struggle against Soviet power in Azerbaijan. After the overthrow of Soviet power in Baku on Sept. 15, 1918, and the expulsion of the British by Turkish troops, power in Azerbaijan nominally passed to the Musavatists. In actuality a dictatorship of the Turkish military clique was established.

After Turkey surrendered to the Entente, the Turkish forces withdrew from Baku, and on Nov. 17,1918, the British interventionists reentered the city. With British support the Musavatists abolished the socialist changes adopted by the Baku Commune of 1918, established a regime of terror, and helped the interventionists plunder the country’s oil and other resources. The Second (and last) Congress of Musavat, held in December 1919, revealed that the party was undergoing a crisis. A left wing had formed within the party and many of its members had left the party. In August 1919 the British interventionists were obliged to leave Azerbaijan. The Musavatist counterrevolutionary regime was overthrown by the insurgent populace in April 1920. After the establishment of Soviet power in Azerbaijan, Musavat ceased to exist. Many Musavatists emigrated, and some of them continued their anti-Soviet activities abroad.


Gusseinov, M. D. Tiurkskaia demokraticheskaia partiia federalistov “Musavat” v proshlom i nastoiashchem, issue 1. Tiflis, 1927.
Raevskii, A. Partiia “Musavat” i ee kontrrevoliutsionnaia rabota. Baku, 1927.
Istoriia Azerbaidzhana, vols. 2–3. Baku, 1960–63.


References in periodicals archive ?
The candidacies of Faraj Guliyev from the National Revival Movement Party, Hafiz Hajiyev from the Modern Musavat Party, and Razi Nurullayev from the Frontists Initiative Group were approved at the meeting.
The Musavat party doesn't recognise the results of the Nov 1 parliamentary elections (which was) conducted in an undemocratic environment," the party said in a statement.
The leading opposition parties in the tightly-controlled Caucasus nation, which include the National Council of Democratic Forces (NCDF), the Musavat party and the Democratic Party of Azerbaijan all boycotted the polls.
members of election commissions, was held at the headquarters of the Musavat party on Friday.
These candidates are: the Chairman of the New Azerbaijan Party, President of Azerbaijan Ilham Aliyev, the chairman of Umid Party Igbal Aghazadeh, self-nominated candidate MP Zahid Oruj, the chairman of the United Azerbaijan Popular Front Party (UAPFP) MP Gudrat Hasanguliyev, the chairman of the Modern Musavat Party Hafiz Hajiyev, the chairman of the Azerbaijan Social Democratic Party (ASDP) Araz Alizadeh, the chairman of the National Revival Movement Party, MP Faraj Guliyev, the candidate nominated by the initiative group of voters of the 'National Council of Democratic Forces', Jamil Hasanli, the chairman of the Adalat Party, MP Ilyas Ismayilov and the chairman of the Azerbaijan Democratic Party (ADP) Sardar Jalaloglu.
The next day, the Musavat Party held a protest at Baku's Fountain Square that reportedly involved several hundred people, but many were prevented from entering the square and several activists were detained in advance or arrested the day of the protest.
Political parties: New Azerbaijan Party, Musavat Party, Popular Front Party, Liberal Party, Democratic Party, National Independence Party, Democratic Reforms Party, Civil Solidarity Party, Hope Party, Justice Party, Communist Party, others.
Most of the current opposition leaders were part of the Front, namely Isa Gamber of Musavat Party, Ali Kerimli of the Azerbaijan People's Front Party, Etibar Memmedov of the Azerbaijan National Independence Party.
But Isa Gambar, leader of the main opposition Musavat party, accused the authorities of trying to "force people to vote".
But Yadigar Sadigov, the local head of the opposition Musavat party in the south-eastern town of Lankaran close to the Iranian border, says Iran's radical version of Shi'ism was still making inroads into religious life in the town.
Isa Gambar, head of the opposition Musavat party, which is part of Azadliq, warned that the opposition coalition has the "strength to overturn the results and conduct new elections,".
AT THE AZERBAIJAN Democratic Party headquarters, my hosts wanted me to watch news footage of the election--especially the events that night outside the downtown headquarters of the Musavat Party, the leading opposition group.