Musculoskeletal System

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musculoskeletal system

[¦məs·kyə·lō′skel·ə·təl ‚sis·təm]
(anatomy)
The muscular and skeletal elements of vertebrates, considered as a functional unit.

Musculoskeletal System

 

a single complex that consists of bones, joints, ligaments, muscles, and the nerves that innervate these parts. In humans and animals the musculoskeletal system supports the body, controls locomotion, and provides for movement of the individual parts and organs, for example, the head and the extremities.

The coordination of function in the locomotor system is determined during embryogenesis, when the sclerotomes—from which the skeletal system develops—are laid down parallel to the myotomes—from which the muscles develop. The fixed portion of the musculoskeletal system is the skeleton—the sturdy foundation of the body, which also protects the internal organs from a number of mechanical influences, such as the impact of a blow.

To the bones of the skeleton are attached the striated, or skeletal, muscles, which are innervated and controlled by nerve endings of nerves that originate in the central nervous system (seeMOTOR ANALYZER).

Muscles constitute the active part of the musculoskeletal system. By means of the coordinated activity of the entire musculature of the body, many different types of movement can be effected. Active tensing of muscles is required to support the body while standing and sitting; to effect the various forms of locomotion, such as walking, running, swimming, crawling, and jumping; and to bring about movement in the individual parts of the body. Illnesses of or injuries to any part of the musculoskeletal system can disturb the motion and form of the entire body; the whole musculoskeletal system can suffer, and often the internal organs are harmed as well. For example, when a significant portion of one extremity is lost, curvature of the spine can develop, after which the thorax becomes deformed; these changes can then precipitate circulatory disturbances and disorders in the respiratory organs.

M. A. KON

References in periodicals archive ?
The musculo-skeletal system is the major component of study in physiotherapy, and in our undergraduate years we struggle to comprehend the integration of its components: vascular, muscular, skeletal and neurological, that combine to create the system we study and treat all our professional careers.
The examination of the musculo-skeletal system by a sound, systematic approach, will elicit whether or not treatment of a physical nature is needed, that is, patient selection is the key to safe and effective management of any case.
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Total quantity or scope: Delivery of anti-virus for systemic use, reduce blood clotting agents, medicinal products for the musculo-skeletal system, corticosteroids, antibacterial agents, analgesics and medicinal products divided into 13 parts
Contract notice: Medicinal products for dermatology and the musculo-skeletal system
Contract award: Medicinal products for dermatology and the musculo-skeletal system
"Walking requires energy, movement control and support and places demands on multiple organ systems, including the heart, lungs, circulatory, nervous and musculo-skeletal systems," the study's authors wrote.
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