Chapter 8 depicts the involvement of Esref in the Nationalist Movement which was headed by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
. After he had a position of regional command near Adapazari, he drifted away from the Ankara Government and joined in the Greek side.
"The Ottoman Army, led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
, had reached Aleppo, which maintained its loyalty to the Ottomans.
After an introduction to the country's geography, political institutions, economic structure, and cultural characteristics, chapters cover the ancient history of Anatolia and Eastern Thrace, from the Paleolithic age to the Seljuk Turkish victory over Byzantine armies at Manzikert; the Turkish conquest of Anatolia and the imperial rule of the Ottoman sultans; the Young Turk revolution, War of Independence, and early years of the republic; Turkish multi-party democracy up to the military coup of September 12, 1980; the effects of military rule; the Justice and Development Party years; and the Gezi Park protests and Turkish life since then, emphasizing the legacy of Mustafa Kemal Pasha
AtatErk, the first president.
Mustafa Kemal Pasha
who emerged as a savior of Turkey after World War I, was a part this movement.
When Mustafa Kemal Pasha
founded the Republic, he inherited the Unionists' "experienced" bureaucratic class and granted them control over all strategic government institutions and agencies, including the Armed Forces and the Intelligence Agency to this group of bureaucrats.
Vice President Ansari, who is presently on a five-day visit to Turkey, while signing in Golden Book at Ataturk Mausoleum here today opined that the ideals symbolized by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
continue to inspire secular, liberal and democratic people the world over.
President Zardari later wrote remarks in a special note book placed at the site stating, It is a great honour for me to pay homage to Ghazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha
, an illustrious soldier, a great reformer and a visionary statesman.
During World War I, he served as a colonel and worked under Mustafa Kemal Pasha
during his assignments at the Caucasus and Palestine fronts.
She once described a scene in mid-1920: For hours Mustafa Kemal Pasha
discussed the merits of [a] proposition with the inner circle of his associates.
The elites that had under girded the Ottoman political system were severely divided between the Sultan's Ottoman camp in Istanbul and Mustafa Kemal Pasha
's (Ataturk) nationalists in central Anatolia.
Then a modern republic of Turkey was set up by Mustafa Kemal Pasha
, who became known as Ataturk (the father of the Turks) and imposed a Western-influenced secular ideology known as Kemalism and the concept of a nation-state called etatism - as opposed to the Islamic concept of "the Umma" (God's nation under a theocracy or caliphate).
The National Assembly passed a law restricting the use of this surname to "the person of the Gazi Mustafa Kemal Pasha
." [The title Gazi originally meant a warrior on behalf of Islam, and was given by the Ottoman sultans to generals--then still called Pashas--for outstanding exploits.] Kemal had achieved his title in recognition of his distinguished military service in defending Gallipoli during the First World War and, following the Ottoman defeat, for his charismatic leadership of the Turkish national movement.