Mutualists


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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Mutualists

 

a name given to a number of petit bourgeois social-reformist tendencies in the first half of the 19th century.

The term was first used in Lyon, France, where a mutual assistance union of master weavers, the Association of Mutualists, was founded in 1828. The mutualists denied the necessity of class struggle and revolution and affirmed that the means of resolving the social question lay in the creation of societies of mutual assistance, such as producers’ and consumers’ cooperatives. The theory reached its highest development in the works of P. J. Proudhon. During the 1860’s, the term “mutualists” was applied to the right-wing Proudhonists who entered the French sections of the First International.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
can cause disease or function as mutualists (Beattie & Lindow, 1995;
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Whitham, "Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines," The American Naturalist, vol.
The IgA antibodies also provide a substrate that allows our mutualist bacteria to form the biofilms that line and protect the colon and appendix.
Although Iain McKay sheds new light on the economic thought of Proudhon, showing that the Frenchman had much more to say about economic relations than just mutualism, mutualism and modern mutualists are criticised because of negative consequences of the market.
However, this bacterial group occurred facultatively in arboreal generalists and plant mutualists alike indicating that even if these symbionts are more frequent in arboreal or mutualistic Pseudomyrmex ants, the association is not obligate.
Their intimate bacterial partners include reproductive parasites, transient facultative mutualists, and persistent, obligate mutualists.
The type of mutualism that has evolved between flying foxes and their Myrtaceous and Proteaceous mutualists involves the partners as 'free-living' mutualists with 'sustained, intimate interactions between individuals of the respective species'.
If climate change causes species that rely on one another, known as "mutualists", to be active at different times, then these species may be threatened with extinction.
Are invasive ants better plant-defense mutualists? A comparison of foliage patrolling and herbivory in sites with invasive yellow crazy ants and native weaver ants.