can cause disease or function as mutualists
(Beattie & Lindow, 1995;
Symbiotic mutualism situates mutualist
creatures in relations of interdependence with others, and so the needs of each constitute calls to others.
Whitham, "Three-way interactions among ectomycorrhizal mutualists
, scale insects, and resistant and susceptible pinyon pines," The American Naturalist, vol.
Relationship between a mutualist
and a parasite of the laurel fig, Ficus microcarpa.
The IgA antibodies also provide a substrate that allows our mutualist
bacteria to form the biofilms that line and protect the colon and appendix.
Although Iain McKay sheds new light on the economic thought of Proudhon, showing that the Frenchman had much more to say about economic relations than just mutualism, mutualism and modern mutualists
are criticised because of negative consequences of the market.
However, this bacterial group occurred facultatively in arboreal generalists and plant mutualists
alike indicating that even if these symbionts are more frequent in arboreal or mutualistic Pseudomyrmex ants, the association is not obligate.
Their intimate bacterial partners include reproductive parasites, transient facultative mutualists
, and persistent, obligate mutualists
The type of mutualism that has evolved between flying foxes and their Myrtaceous and Proteaceous mutualists
involves the partners as 'free-living' mutualists
with 'sustained, intimate interactions between individuals of the respective species'.
If climate change causes species that rely on one another, known as "mutualists
", to be active at different times, then these species may be threatened with extinction.
Maloof JE, Inouye DW (2000) Are nectar robbers cheaters or mutualists
? Ecology 81: 2651-2661.
Are invasive ants better plant-defense mutualists
? A comparison of foliage patrolling and herbivory in sites with invasive yellow crazy ants and native weaver ants.