Mycobacterial diseases

Mycobacterial diseases

Diseases caused by mycobacteria, a diffuse group of acid-fast, rod-shaped bacteria in the genus Mycobacterium. The two most important species are M. tuberculosis (the cause of tuberculosis) and M. leprae (the cause of leprosy); other species have been called by several names, particularly the atypical mycobacteria or the nontuberculous mycobacteria. See Leprosy, Tuberculosis

These bacteria are classified according to their pigment formation, rate of growth, and colony morphology. The most commonly involved disease site is the lungs. Nontuberculous mycobacteria are transmitted from natural sources in the environment, rather than from person to person, and thus are not a public health hazard. The diagnosis of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria can be difficult, since colonization or contamination of specimens may be present rather than true infection. Pulmonary disease resembling tuberculosis is a most important manifestation of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. The symptoms and chest x-ray findings are similar to those seen in tuberculosis. Mycobacterium kansasii and M. avium intracellulare are the most common pathogens. The disease usually occurs in middle-aged men and women with some type of chronic coexisting lung disease. The pathogenic mechanisms are obscure. Pulmonary infections due to M. kansasii can be treated successfully with chemotherapy. The treatment of pulmonary infections due to M. avium intracellulare complex is difficult.

Chronic infection involving joints and bones, bursae, synovia, and tendon sheaths can be caused by various species.

Localized abscesses due to M. fortuitum or M. chelonei can occur after trauma, after surgical incision, or at injection sites. The usual treatment is surgical incision. The most common soft tissue infection is caused by M. marinum, which may be introduced, following an abrasion or trauma, from handling fish or fish tanks, or around a swimming pool. Treatment is surgical. Mycobacterium ulcerans causes a destructive skin infection in tropical areas of the world. It is treated by wide excision and skin grafting.

Disseminated M. avium intracellulare is one of the opportunistic infections seen in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In individuals with AIDS, the organism has been cultured from lung, brain, cerebrospinal fluid, liver, spleen, intestinal mucosa, and bone marrow. No treatment has yet been effective in this setting. See Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

References in periodicals archive ?
Address : National jalma institute for leprosy and other mycobacterial diseases, agra
ATS Mycobacterial Diseases Subcommittee; American Thoracic Society; Infectious Diseases Society of America.
An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases.
Mycobacterial infections are observed commonly in patients with severe forms of primary immunodeficiency, including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), complete Di George syndrome, X-linked hyper immunoglobulin (Ig)-M syndrome (HIGM type 1, CD154 deficiency), CD40 deficiency, immune deficiencies accompanying ectodermal dysplasia (nuclear factor kappa-beta essential modulator (NEMO), IKBA), chronic granulomatous disease (CGD), interleukin 12-interferon gamma (IL-12/IFN-[gamma]) receptor disorders, and hyper IgE syndrome, and these diseases have been examined under the title of Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Diseases (MSMD) (3-12).
In the latter cases, severe infection with mycobacterial diseases often occurs [13], with a familial preponderance for high IFN-[gamma] levels [27], both of which are not common with dominant partial deficiencies.
On the other hand, inherited immune system defects, such as Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases syndromes (MEMS), in which there are defects in the axis IL-12/IN-y, can be a major cause of fungal and mycobacterial associations, as in the patient of the clinical case; although it would be expected that these patients present, since their birth, a history of oral, skin and enteral fungal infections, with a very important fact, as it is the presence of axillary lymphadenitis and disseminated mycobacterial infection with the implementation of the BCG vaccine, and pigmented purpuric dermatosis (8), data that were not found in our patient.
International journal of leprosy & other mycobacterial diseases, 1994; 62: 24-31.
Sarmento, "Endotracheal tuberculosis and aspergillosis co-infection manifested as acute respiratory failure: a case report," Mycobacterial Diseases, vol.
According to these clinical and pathological findings, the most common granulomatous diseases are mycobacterial diseases such as tuberculosis, hence why the diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis was highly suspected, and the patient was given anti-TB drugs.
tuberculosis isolates: The study was performed in the National JALMA Institute for Leprosy & Other Mycobacterial Diseases, Agra.