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myelogenous leukemia[‚mī·ə′läj·ə·nəs lü′kē·mē·ə]
(myelocytic leukemia, myeloid granulocytic leukemia, or myelosis), a disease of the blood system characterized by the overproduction of immature granulocytes (myelocytes, promyelocytes, less often myelo-blasts) in the hematopoietic organs.
In myelogenous leukemia, the number of leukocytes in the blood increases—in the initial period, up to 20,000 per micro-liter; in advanced stages, the number of leukocytes may reach 200,000 to 400,000 per microliter. Hemograms and myelograms show a predominance of cells of the granulocytic series (of varying degree of maturity: stab neutrophils, metamyelocytes, myelocytes, and promyelocytes). A distinguishing feature of these cells during myelogenous leukemia is change in the 21st and 22nd pairs of chromosomes. The percentage of basophils and eosinophils in the blood often increases, which indicates a more severe course of the disease. In the majority of cases there is an enlarged spleen. The disease progresses steadily. The terminal stage is characterized by emaciation, anemia, and the appearance of a large number of myeloblasts in the bone marrow and the blood.
Treatment includes chemotherapy, radiation therapy, general restorative therapy, and, when necessary, blood transfusion.
REFERENCEKassirskii, I. A., and G. A. Alekseev. Klinicheskaia gematologiia, 4th ed. Moscow, 1970.
A. M. POLIANSKAIA