Myoclonia


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Myoclonia

 

a term applied to various kinds of involuntary, rapid, nonrhythmic contractions of individual muscle groups and muscle fibers. Myoclonia is considered a form of hyperkinesia.

There are three types of myoclonia: true myoclonia, which is characterized by jerky movements of the extremities due to the contraction of large groups of muscles; paramyoclonus, which is characterized by the contraction of individual muscle fibers; and myorhythmia, which is characterized by the constant, rhythmic twitching of an individual muscle. Myoclonia is caused by inflammatory, degenerative, and toxicoallergic processes in the extrapyramidal system. It is one of the principal symptoms of myoclonus epilepsy. Myoclonia may also accompany tick-borne and epidemic encephalitides and other diseases.

Treatment involves elimination of the underlying disease and prescription of antispasmodics. Early diagnosis and treatment of encephalitis are important in preventing myoclonia.

REFERENCE

Abramovich, G. B. Epilepsiia u detei i podrostkov. Leningrad, 1965.

L. O. BADALIAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Limbic motor signs such as wet-dog shakes, paw tremor, and facial myoclonia were recorded as the symptoms of epilepsy.
Three major phenotypes of seizures, namely, wet-dog shakes, paw tremors, and facial myoclonia, were recorded.
KA-induced temporal lobe seizures, including wet-dog shakes (WDS) with intermittent polyspike-like activity (b), facial myoclonia with continuous sharp waves (c), and paw tremor (PT) with continuous-spike activity (d).
His mother (patient 3), who had very similar initial presentation, developed absence epilepsy with eyelid myoclonia during her second year of life.
Japanese authors reported a patient with mutation in exon 7 of GLUD1 gene who presented with absence epilepsy and eyelid myoclonia refractory to treatment and whose seizures intensified after protein-rich meals (15).
Present study indicated that rats developed epileptic seizures after KA administration, and the behaviors of epileptic seizure included wet shakes, paw tremor, and facial myoclonia. Administration of UR (1 g/kg) and RP (0.25 mg/kg) improved the behaviors of wet shakes, paw tremor, and facial myoclonia.
The epileptic seizures were captured using a video recording epileptic behavioral analysis system (SeizureScan, Clever Sys., Inc., Virgina, USA) that occurred in the rats were confirmed by observing behavior (e.g., wet-dog shakes, paw tremors, and facial myoclonia under a freely moving and conscious state) and epileptiform discharges on EEG recordings.
We counted wet-dog shakes, paw tremors, and facial myoclonia to ensure the creation of a successfully induced seizure model.
Posttraumatic palatal and ocular myoclonia. Polygraphic study during wakefulness and sleep.
Classification of seizures GENERALIZED SEIZURES Tonic-clonic (in any combination) Absence Typical Atypical Absence with special features Myoclonic absence Eyelid myoclonia Myoclonic Myoclonic Myoclonic atonic Myoclonic tonic Clonic Tonic Atonic FOCAL SEIZURES UNKNOWN Epileptic spasms * Reference: Berg AT et al.
After 2 weeks, the animal showed severe dysmetria of the extremities without obvious myoclonia. Dementia was apparent but could not be diagnosed by objective measures.