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the fruits of Terminalia chebula, a tree native to India of the family Combretaceae. They contain up to 46 percent tannins, which together with other tannins are used to tan calfskin, goatskin, and sheepskin, as well as to obtain black dye. Gray myrobalans are obtained from Phyllanthus emblica (family Euphorbiaceae), which is also native to India. The fruits, which also contain tannins, are used for tanning, to obtain dye, and as food.