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a Vietnamese dynasty that ruled from A.D. 939 to 965, founded by Ngo Quyen. To bolster the country’s recently won independence from China, the Ngos reorganized the feudal-bureaucratic state apparatus. Overcoming the constant resistance of the great feudal lords, or xu quans, the Ngos strove to reinforce centralized authority. They restored original Vietnamese traditions in culture and ideology. However, weakened by the struggle against the feudal nobles, the Ngos were reduced to the status of xu quans. With the death of Ngo Xuong Van, the last representative of the Ngos, the country entered a period of feudal fragmentation, the “era of the 12 xu quans.”