nitrocellulose

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nitrocellulose

nitrocellulose, nitric acid ester of cellulose (a glucose polymer). It is usually formed by the action of a mixture of nitric and sulfuric acids on purified cotton or wood pulp. The extent of nitration and degradation (breaking down) of the cellulose is carefully controlled in order to obtain the desired product. When cotton is treated so that nearly all of the hydroxyl groups of the cellulose molecule are esterified, but with little or no degradation of the molecular structure, the nitrocellulose formed is called guncotton. Guncotton resembles cotton in its appearance. Extremely flammable, it explodes when detonated and is used in the manufacture of explosives. Guncotton is insoluble in such common solvents as water, chloroform, ether, and ethanol. If the nitration is not carried to completion (the point at which about two thirds of the hydroxyl groups are esterified), the soluble cellulose nitrate pyroxylin is formed.
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nitrocellulose

[¦nī·trō′sel·yə‚lōs]
(organic chemistry)
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

cellulose nitrate

A material formed by the reaction of cellulose fibers with nitric and sulfuric acids. Those with lower nitrogen content are used as binders in lacquers and are very inflammable. A high nitrogen content results in nitrocellulose, an explosive.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
8-letter words ANCE.STOR BEAD.INGS CHAR.ISMA DESP.ISED ERAS.URES FORE.STER ENAC.TORS DEBA.SING ARCH.AISM DESP.IDES REAS.SURE REFO.REST GRAN.ITES HARP.INGS CHAR.ISMA DESP.ISED ERAS.URES FORE.STER ANGR.IEST PHRA.SING NICE.NESS JINA.SITS KREA.SOTE LARB.OARD (coined phase) MORA.INES NITR.ATES OUTR.EIGN PARE.NTIS QUAE.STOR RESI.DUES ROMA.NISE INTR.EATS ROUT.EING REPA.INTS EQAU.TORS REIS.SUED SPAR.SELY TERP.ENES URIC.ASES VERO.NESE WORD.INGS XENO.SINA PARS.LEYS PRET.ENSE CUIR.ASSE OVER.SEEN DROW.SING EXON.IANS YMAN.ERED ZOOG.LEAS MANY DEER GOZO SEAL (coined phrase) (coined phrase)
Halogenation of organic material in suspension with solutions of nitr ates which contain halides was thereafter discovered to occur, both in the laboratory and by sunlight.
Since [N.sup.15]/[N.sup.14] ratios seem to be more promising than [C.sup.13]/[C.sup.12] ratios for the assessment of trophic levels, our study focused on nitr ogen.