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(NanoRAM) A non-volatile, random access memory technology from Nantero, Inc., Woburn, MA ( that is being developed to initially replace flash memory and ultimately DRAM and SRAM memories. NRAM uses carbon nanotubes for the bit cells, and the 0 or 1 is determined by the tube's physical state: up with high resistance, or down and grounded.

NRAM is expected to be faster and denser than DRAM and also very scalable; able to handle 5 nm bit cells whenever CMOS fabrication advances to that level. It is also very stable in its 0 or 1 state. Using standard CMOS fabrication facilities, Nantero licensed NRAM to companies for commercial production. See future memory chips.

Spin Coat the Tubes onto the Wafer
Making NRAM cells is quite fascinating. A solution of purified carbon nanotubes is placed onto a wafer with predefined round electrodes and spun at centrifugal force to spread the fluid. The tubes wind up in random polarizations, spread evenly across the wafer and over the electrodes. Subsequent steps remove the extraneous tubes and add the interconnects. Each electrode with its carbon tubes becomes a memory cell (see below).

The Bits Are Nanotubes
An NRAM 0 or 1 bit is determined by whether the tubes are straight up or bent down. Changing the charge on the electrode changes the data state (0 or 1) by attracting or repelling the positively charged nanotube. When straight up, the tubes have high resistance; when bent down, they have low resistance. The distance between up and down is 1/10,000 of a human hair.

Making the NRAM Cells
Only two cells are shown here to illustrate the concept; however, billions of cells are created on a wafer, and many, many more tubes land over each electrode.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nantero's NRAM technology is based on carbon nanotubes and allows for non-volatile memory with high density and random access, promising to expand Mie Fujitsu Semiconductor's line of embedded non-volatile memory products, which are a major focus of our business.
Now, Lord Shipley says the Government could make money from the sale of NRAM and it is "an issue of fairness" that 5% should reach the region's charities.
Through the latest financing deal, Nantero will be able to back its partners which are bringing NRAM into production in the short term, Nantero's CEO, Greg Schmergel, noted.
M2 EQUITYBITES-July 24, 2013-UKAR to sell NRAM standalone unsecured personal loans portfolio for GBP400m(C)2013 M2 COMMUNICATIONS http://www.
The error was unearthed by UK Asset Resolution (UKAR), which now owns NRAM, which said the PS270m will be paid back to customers from its profits.
UKAR was formed last October to manage the closed mortgage books of both B&B and NRAM to maximise value for taxpayers.
The Foundation also approached Northern Rock (Asset Management) plc - NRAM -for funding, as they had responsibility for the existing funding arrangement after the split of the bank in January 2010.
The types of Nanomemory technologies discussed in the report include: Ferroelectric Random Access Memory or FRAM, Magnetoresitive Random Access Memory or MRAM, Ovonic Unified Memory, Holographic Memory, Nano-RAM or NRAM, Molecular Memory, and Polymer memory.
NRAM, which is part of Newcastlebased UK Asset Resolution, launched the case itself to test whether customers are owed compensation because agreements were documented as though they were regulated by the 1974 Act.
NRAM - which was split from the "good" part of Northern Rock that was bought by Virgin Money - repaid pounds 88m in Government loans, reducing the amount owes to pounds 19.
NRAM said the number of mortgages falling into arrears for three months or more increased by 3% to 25,419 in 2010.
Though it saw a pounds 140m loss for the second half-year, NRAM yesterday said it had improved its bottom line because of growing income from interest on its loans and lower than expected impairment charges.