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a genus of bacteria, related to actinomycetes; it differs from true bacteria in a number of ways. The young vegetative cells are rodlike (0.5–0.8 × 2.2 microns); they are capable of branching and acquiring V or Y shapes. In old cultures spherical cells predominate. Mycobacteria, which do not form endospores, are nonmotile, gram-positive, and strictly aerobic. They reproduce mainly by dividing and budding. Mycobacteria contain carotenoids, and, as a result, their colonies are often pigmented (yellow, orange, or red). Owing to their cell composition (including lipides and wax), some myco-bacteria, in contrast to other bacteria, are acid-fast.

Mycobacteria are widely distributed in soils and are active in the mineralization of plant remains. Some species of Mycobacterium are nitrogen-fixing microorganisms; others are capable of metabolizing the carbohydrates of petroleum and natural gas and, when cultured, accumulate protein, which is used for fodder and other purposes. Some species of Mycobacterium are pathogenic to humans (for example, mycobacteria are the causative agents of tuberculosis and leprosy).


References in periodicals archive ?
The first confirmed cluster of infections occurred at WellSpan York Hospital, with investigation results demonstrating a convincing link between NTM infections and the heater-cooler devices used during open heart surgeries to warm and cool a patient's blood during cardiopulmonary bypass.
tuberculosis, supported by the unresponsiveness to specific treatments and by the negative PCR results of strongly smear-positive sputum samples clearly fulfill the clinical criteria of the America Thoracic Society for NTM pulmonary disease (5).
We report a case of NTM middle ear infection in a 55-year-old woman who had experienced bilateral otorrhea intermittently for 40 years.
Researchers at National Jewish Health, which sees more NTM infections than any other medical center in the world, tried to figure out why only some exposed patients develop these difficult infections.
ITC's NTM programme is not a magic wand that can bring down the barriers to trade in the immediate future But it has indeed contributed to the recognition that for developing country economies to expand NTMs have first to be identified and then remedies put in place For this to happen on a larger global scale a more substantial effort and greater cooperation are needed both at the national and international level.
Doctors use CT scans and sputum cultures to confirm NTM.
In one California study, 29 of 30 pedicure foot baths in 18 salons in five counties contained NTM.
Soon after this, reports of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were described, and in the 1950s, large series confirmed that NTM were also human pathogens (2).
Migration Common name Scientific name status Sharp-shinned Hawk Accipiter striatus NAM Mourning Dove Zenaida macroura NAM Yellow-billed Cuckoo Coccyzus americanus NTM Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica NTM Ruby-throated Hummingbird Archilochus colubris NTM Yellow-bellied Sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius NAM Downy Woodpecker Picoides pubescens PER Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus NAM Empidonax flycatcher Empidonax spp.
Employment of sophisticated NTM reduced the risk of miscalculation by American and Soviet leaders.