Na-Dene Languages

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Na-Dene Languages

 

a family of American Indian languages in Alaska, Canada, and the western and southern USA, including (1) Haida (Queen Charlotte Islands and southern Alaska) and the Dene-Tlingit languages—Tlingit, or Koluschan (Alaska and British Columbia); and (2) the Eyak-Athapaskan language group, which consists of Eyak (Alaska) and the Athapaskan languages.

The Na-Dene languages have a rich system of consonants, including glottalized, lateral fricative, and uvular consonants. The well-developed system of affricates in some Na-Dene languages includes the dental affricates tθ, ţθ, and , and also lateral affricates. Tlingit and some of the Athapaskan languages (Apache, Kutchin, Sarsi, Chipewyan) have phonological tones. The Na-Dene languages are agglutinative, with analytical elements (for example, in the expression of case relations), partly with internal inflection (in the verb in Haida and several Athapaskan languages). The inclusion within the verbal word (in some languages) of lexical or incompletely grammaticized morphemes together with the root can be interpreted as incorporation. The word preserves clear traces of a change from a combination of words to a morphological whole. A system of noun classes expressed by verbal prefixes (such as a classification of objects primarily on the basis of form and external similarity) is well developed in some languages, among them Haida.

REFERENCES

Boas, F. Handbook of American Indian Languages, part 1. Washington, 1911.
Pinnow, H. J. Grundzüge einer historischen Lautlehre des Tlingit. Wiesbaden, 1966.

A. B. DOLGOPOL’SKII

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23) By calculating the expansion times of haplogroup A within the Na-Dene and Amerindian groups, the Bonatto-Salzano and Stone-Stoneking research teams argue that the ancestors of these two groups arrived in the New World in the same migration.
This group of immigrants possessed the RPS4Y-T and M45b Y chromosome lineages and expanded in North and Central America to form the Na-Dene and northern Amerindian groups.
This team of investigators grouped the mtDNA lineages of the Na-Dene, Eskimo-Aleuts, and the Chukchi of Siberia into the Circumarctic people and concluded that the Na-Dene and Eskimo-Aleuts crossed the Bering land bridge together during a rapid radiation of these Circumarctic people that occurred thousands of years after the Amerindian migration G.
Linguists have long held that both the Yeniseian languages in Siberia and the, Na-Dene languages in North America have no known relatives among other languages in the world.
10 Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, compared the Yeniseian language family--which today consists only of Ket, a language spoken in central Siberia--to the Na-Dene family, which includes several languages spoken mainly in western Canada and Alaska.