sodium sulfate

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sodium sulfate,

chemical compound, Na2SO4. It is a white, orthorhombic crystalline compound at ordinary temperatures; above 100°C; it assumes a monoclinic structure, and above about 250°C; it assumes a hexagonal structure. Sodium sulfate is soluble in cold water and very soluble in hot water. It forms two hydrates; the decahydrate is Glauber's saltGlauber's salt,
common name for sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4·10H2O; it occurs as white or colorless monoclinic crystals. Upon exposure to fairly dry air it effloresces, forming powdery anhydrous sodium sulfate.
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. Anhydrous sodium sulfate is found in nature as the mineral thenardite. The major commercial source of sodium sulfate is salt cake, a byproduct of the production of hydrochloric acid from sodium chloride (common salt) by treatment with sulfuric acid. It is obtained (with other chemicals) by evaporation of natural brines. It is also obtained as a byproduct of viscose rayon manufacture and in several other, less important ways. The principal use of sodium sulfate is in processing wood pulp for making kraft paper. It is also used in glass manufacture, textile dyeing, and synthetic detergents.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Sodium Sulfate


Na2SO4, a salt; colorless crystals. Occurs naturally as the mineral thenardite. Density, 2.698 g/cm3; melting point, 884°C. Solubility in water, 16.3 percent at 20°C and 29.8 percent at 100°C. Anhydrous Na2SO4 is stable at temperatures above 32.384°C; lower temperatures induce the crystallization of Na2So4·10H2O. In nature, this crystal hydrate forms the mineral mirabilite (Glauber’s salt). Double salts of sodium sulfate with other sulfates, such as astrakhanite, Na2SO4·MgSO4 · 4H2O, and glauberite, Na2SO4·CaSo4 are also known.

Large quantities of sodium sulfate are found in brine and in the bottom deposits of chloride-sulfate salt lakes and the gulf of Kara-Bogaz-Gol (USSR). The reaction 2NaCL + MgSO4⇆MgCl2 + Na2So4 takes place there upon a reduction in temperature. Sodium sulfate crystallizes in the form of mirabilite. Another method for the preparation of Na2SO4 is the reaction of NaCl and H2SO4 in special “sulfate” furnaces at 500°-55O°C, which also yields hydrochloric acid.

Sodium sulfate is used in glass-making, the manufacture of sulfate cellulose, soap-making, tanning, nonferrous metallurgy, and textile manufacture, as well as in medicine and veterinary science (as a laxative). Sodium bisulfate, NaHSO4, and sodium disulfate (pyrosulfate), Na2S2O7, are used in the same way as KHSO4 and K2S2O7.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

sodium sulfate

[′sōd·ē·əm ′səl‚fāt]
(inorganic chemistry)
Na2SO4 Crystalline compound, melts at 888°C, soluble in water; used to make paperboard, kraft paper, glass, and freezing mixtures.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Sawangphruk, "Charge storage mechanisms of birnessite-type MnO2 nanosheets in Na2SO4 electrolytes with different pH values: In situ electrochemical X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation, " Electrochim.
For clean-up, a 21 cm long polypropylene column (1.2 cm id) was plugged up with cotton-wool (pre-washed with dichloromethane), about 1 g anhydrous Na2SO4 was transferred over it, and then activated acidic alumina (about 4 g) was added to column with continuous tapping to achieve compact packing.
After the completion of reaction time, the reaction mixture was washed with H2O (3x20 mL) the resulting organic layer was dried over anhydrous Na2SO4, filtered and concentrated in vacuo to afford mono-bromo product.
For SBF, sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3), potassium chloride (KCl), dipotassium hydrogen phosphate trihydrate (K2HPO4 x 3H2O), magnesium chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2 x 6H2O), calcium chloride (CaCl2), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) were used.
Calcined temperature Crystallite 20 Stress ([degrees]C) size (nm) (degrees) factor (e) 200 42 34.07 0.163 400 49 32.28 0.146 600 55 32.13 0.059 Table 2: The characteristic FTIR spectra of Na2SO4. IR absorption peak ([cm.sup.-1]) Nature of Bond 200[degrees] C 400[degrees] C 600[degrees]C 2847 2854 -- M-O 2921 2921 -- 3415 3444 3422 S-O 613 613 616 1117 1129 1121 Table 3: Kinetic parameters for the [Na.sub.2]S[O.sub.4] irradiated at different [gamma]-ray doses.
The weight was recorded to the nearest 0.1g of sodium sulphates, Na2SO4 (granular, anhydrous) and it was mixed into the soil samples to increase the contact surface for free-flowing texture and better mixing of the solvent with the sample.100 ml of methanol was immediately added as the extraction solvent.
Osmotic and ionic effects of NaCl and Na2SO4 salinity on Phragmites australis.
Calcium-trihydroxy phosphate (TCP), sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SOBS), and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) were used as received.
Potentiodynamic polarization diagrams of Ni layers electrodeposited on copper substrates (1 h deposition time, current densities between 1 and 10 A [dm .sup.-2]) were performed in a corrosive medium (0.5 M Na2SO4 solution, pH 2), after 30 min and after 1 h from immersion (Fig.
Since lyocell have been moderate affinity for most reac tive dyes, large quantities of electrolyte such as NaCl or Na2So4 (40-100 gpl) are normally required for exhaustion.