Nabataean Kingdom


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Nabataean Kingdom

 

the ancient state of the Nabataeans, a group of Arabian tribes, lasting from the late third century B.C. until A.D. 106 on the territory of modern Jordan. Its capital was Petra. In the late third and early second centuries B.C., the Nabataean kingdom lay within the sphere of influence of Ptolemaic Egypt. The first known Nabataean king was Aretas I, who came to the throne in 169 B.C. Under Aretas III (87–62 B.C.), the Nabataeans conquered Damascus. In the late 60’s B.C. the kingdom became a vassal of Rome. The Nabataeans frequently took part in Roman military expeditions, such as the siege of Jerusalem in A.D. 70. The kingdom reached its peak under Aretas IV, who ruled from A.D. 9 to 40. After it was conquered by the Roman emperor Trajan in 106, it became the Roman province of Arabia.

Without losing its ancient Arabian artistic traditions, Nabataean art was strongly influenced by Hellenistic culture. This influence may be seen in architecture in the use of orders and, in pictorial art, in the predilection for themes from Greek mythology and a striving toward three-dimensional treatment of form. An outstanding relic of Nabataean culture is Petra, a unique complex of temples, mausoleums, houses, and theaters carved out of rock (third century B.C. to first century A.D.). Other remains have been found north of Petra, including the temples at Khirbet Tannur in Jordan and at Jabal Hauran in Syria dating from the first century B.C. to the second century A.D.

REFERENCES

Kaufman, S. A. “Ob arkhitekture drevnego arabskogo naroda nabateev.” In Voprosy vseobshchei istorii arkhitektury, collection 1. Moscow, 1961.
Kennedy, A. B. W. Petra: Its History and Monuments. London, 1925.
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The Nabataean Kingdom was a political entity in the 4th century BCE - 106 CE, which we now know as present-day Jordan and surrounding areas.
A 52-hectare ancient city, Hegra was the principal southern city of the Nabataean Kingdom and comprises more than 100 well-preserved tombs with elaborate facades cut from the sandstone outcrops surrounding the walled urban settlement dating back to the 2nd Century BCE.
And to see this elephant-head capital in the Tisch Galleries of the Metropolitan Museum of Art is to be reminded that Petra's famous tombs were part of an urban environment, the capital of the Nabataean kingdom and subsequently a city in the Roman empire.
Known for its 131 well-preserved rock-cut monumental tombs and elaborate facades that date back to the Nabataean Kingdom, it is also Saudi Arabia's first of several UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Besides art in the city, a trip to the lunar-landscaped al-Ula and the southernmost remains of the Nabataean Kingdom (think Petra only more spread out), overawed visitors; its vast, natural beauty putting man-made endeavour into perspective.
This is a lovely and lovingly written work about Petra, capital of the Nabataean kingdom, and arguably the most impressive archeological site in the Near East.
Petra - capital of the Nabataean kingdom from the 4th century BC and captured by the Romans in the 2nd century.
On 10 December writer Jane Taylor presented an erudite lecture on the ancient Nabataean Kingdom. She explained how, in a period of three centuries, the Nabataeans changed from a pastoral nomadic tribe to a sophisticated society settled in fine cities with a major trading empire covering the Arabian peninsula.
Located 1,100km from Riyadh, Al Ula includes a lush oasis valley, towering sandstone mountains and ancient cultural heritage sites dating back thousands of years to when the Lihyan and Nabataean kingdoms reigned.
The site contains evidence of major civilisations dating back more than 4,000 years, including the Lihyan and the Nabataean kingdoms.