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Nabonidus(năbənī`dəs), d. 538? B.C., last king of the Chaldaean dynasty of Babylonia. He was not of NebuchadnezzarNebuchadnezzar
, d. 562 B.C., king of Babylonia (c.605–562 B.C.), son and successor of Nabopolassar. In his father's reign he was sent to oppose the Egyptians, who were occupying W Syria and Palestine. At Carchemish he met and defeated (605 B.C.
..... Click the link for more information. 's family, and it is possible that he usurped the throne. He was absorbed in antiquarian and religious speculations, and he built temples while the state was left undefended. He was unpopular with both the priests and the people. When the Persian threat of Cyrus the GreatCyrus the Great
, d. 529 B.C., king of Persia, founder of the greatness of the Achaemenids and of the Persian Empire. According to Herodotus, he was the son of an Iranian noble, the elder Cambyses, and a Median princess, daughter of Astyages.
..... Click the link for more information. grew strong, Nabonidus allied himself with CroesusCroesus
, d. c.547 B.C., king of Lydia (560–c.547 B.C.), noted for his great wealth. He was the son of Alyattes. He continued his father's policy of conquering the Ionian cities of Asia Minor, but on the whole he was friendly to the Greeks, and he is supposed to have given
..... Click the link for more information. of Lydia and Amasis IIAmasis II,
d. 525 B.C., king of ancient Egypt (569–525 B.C.), of the XXVI dynasty. In a military revolt he dethroned Apries. He erected temples and other buildings at Memphis and Saïs and encouraged Greek merchants and artisans to settle at Naucratis.
..... Click the link for more information. of Egypt, but to no avail. In 538 B.C. the kingdom fell to Cyrus with no resistance. Nabonidus' scholars preserved information valuable to modern archaeologists. Cuneiform records indicate that BelshazzarBelshazzar
, according to the Bible, son of Nebuchadnezzar and last king of Babylon. The Book of Daniel relates that, at his feast, handwriting appeared on the wall. Daniel interpreted it as a prophecy of doom; that night Babylonia fell to the otherwise unknown Darius the Mede.
..... Click the link for more information. was Nabonidus' son and his coregent during the last years of Babylon.
the last Babylonian king; ruled from 556 to 539 B.C. An Aramaean by origin, Nabonidus strove to unite all the Aramaean tribes of Southwest Asia into a single state to wage a struggle against Persia. In the course often years, he conquered Taima and other regions of Arabia and left his son Belshazzar as vicegerent in Babylon. Nabonidus carried out religious reforms and patronized the cult of the moon god Sin. Babylon fell to the Persians in the autumn of 539 B.C., and Nabonidus was taken prisoner.