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China: see NanjingNanjing
or Nanking
[southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov., E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. It has served at times in the past as capital of China.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a city in China, located on the right bank of the lower Yangtze River. A major national economic and cultural center. Capital of Kiangsu Province. Population, 1,670,000 (1965, estimate).

Nanking is an important transportation junction, with a river port accessible to oceangoing ships. A two-tiered railroad and highway bridge spans the Yangtze at Nanking. Local industrial products include machine tools, turbines, electronic instruments, electrical equipment, trucks, agricultural machinery, metal products, chemicals (particularly chemical fertilizers and synthetic fibers), cement, textiles, and food. A thermal electric power plant is located in the city. Nanking is a scientific and cultural center, with a university, eight other institutions of higher education, a museum, an observatory, a botanical garden, and a zoo.

Nanking was founded in 472 B.C. At various times it was known as Chinling, Moling, Chienyeh, Chienk’ang, and Kiangning. Beginning in the third century A.D., it served as the capital for such major feudal dynasties as the Wu (third century) and the Eastern Chin, Liu-Sung, Southern Ch’i, Liang, and Ch’en (fourth through sixth centuries). Nanking was also the capital of China during the initial period of the rule of the Ming dynasty (1368–1421). From 1421 to 1911 it was the center of the Chiangnan vicegerency (Kiangsu, Kianghsi, and Anhwei provinces). From March 1853 through 1864, under the name of T’ienching (“heavenly capital”), it was the capital of the state established during the Taiping uprising.

Nanking was a leading center of the bourgeois Hsin-hai Revolution (1911–13); from the end of December 1911 until April 1912 it was the capital of China’s first republican government, led by Sun Yat-sen. From April 1912 until 1927, Nanking was the capital of Kiangsu Province. After Chiang Kai’shek’s counterrevolutionary coup, of Apr. 12, 1927, the city became China’s capital. In December 1937, Nanking fell to the Japanese and from 1940 to 1945 was the site of the puppet government set up by the Japanese and headed by Wang Ching-wei. Again from 1946 through 1949, Nanking served as the sent of government of the Republic of China. The city was liberated from the Kuomintang by the People’s Liberation Army on Apr. 23, 1949.

Nanking has an irregular layout. The Imperial City, built in the 14th and 15th centuries according to an elaborate plan and surrounded by a massive stone wall in 1400, is located in the eastern part of the city. Noteworthy architectural monuments of Nanking include the stone Porcelain Pagoda of the Ch’ihsia-shih temple, built during the tenth century; the Wu-liang-tien, a beamless brick temple, constructed in 1398 within the Ling-koshih temple; portions of the city wall that date from the Ming era (from the 14th through the 17th centuries); the imperial tombs of the Liang dynasty (ruled A.D. 502–557); with their monumental stone statuary of fantastic animals; the tomb of Chu Yüan-chang (14th century), with stone figures of officials, warriors, and animals; and the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, constructed 1926–29.


Sushkina, N. N. U drevnikh pamiatnikov. Moscow, 1959.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


, Nanking, Nan-ching
a port in E central China, capital of Jiangsu province, on the Yangtze River: capital of the Chinese empire and a literary centre from the 14th to 17th centuries; capital of Nationalist China (1928--37); site of a massacre of about 300 000 civilians by the invading Japanese army in 1937; university (1928). Pop.: 2 806 000 (2005 est.)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
She had been appointed to teach religious studies and to assist in directing religious activities at Ginling College in Nanking.
The book begins with a sprawling series that begins to unpack the atrocities at Nanking -- the news coverage, the photos of beheaded Chinese citizens, of women sexually assaulted with various objects.
The film opens to the utter devastation of bombing and killing, with Nanking in ruins around the stoical walls of the Cathedral.
Katyn, City Of Life Christian 'Inspired Nanking', 300,000 good-dramatisation massacre, Bale undertaker bury a that's been And Death...
"Also stolen was a Moorcroft candle-stick holder and vase, a selection of Graf von Faber-Castell pens and pencils and a pair of Nanking Cargo plates."
THE FLOWERS OF WAR by Geling Yan (Harvill Secker, pounds 10) THE Nanking war, when Japanese troops occupied the Chinese city in the 1930s, remains a controversial issue to this day, yet Shanghai-born author Geling Yan has courageously tackled it.
THE FLOWERS OF WAR Geling Yan (Harvill Secker, pounds 10) THE Nanking war, when Japanese troops occupied the Chinese city in the 1930s, remains a controversial issue but Shanghai author Geling Yan has tackled it here.
Toe die Japannese Nanking laglag verower, het hy 'n nuwe droom gekry, oto heldhaftig vir die vaderland te veg en die grootsheid van sy geliefde land te vermeerder en aan die wereld te wys.
The company seems to have grown exponentially in the size, quantity and range of its projects, from China's most expensive epic ever, Zhang Yimou's Nanking drama "The Flowers of War" (on which the company will finalize deals after it screens in December) to the latest horror film from "Paranormal Activity" wunderkind Oren Peli to Jonathan Glazer's sci-fi pic "Under the Skin," starring Scarlett Johannson.
"Large parties of Chinese soldiers laid down their arms and surrendered outside Nanking; within 72 hours after their surrender they were killed in groups by machine gun fire along the bank of the Yangtze River." (1)
The 1842 Treaty of Nanking opened Shanghai, then a small fishing city between the Yangzee and Huangpu Rivers, up to international trade.
ULRICH Tukur plays the eponymous hero, a Nazi who helps establish a Siemens factory in 1937 Nanking just as the Japanese invade China.