# ampere

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## ampere

(ăm`pēr), abbr. amp or A, basic unit of electric current. It is the fundamental electrical unit used with the mks systemmks system,
system of units of measurement based on the metric system and having the meter of length, the kilogram of mass, and the second of time as its fundamental units. Other mks units include the newton of force, the joule of work or energy, and the watt of power.
of units of the metric systemmetric system,
system of weights and measures planned in France and adopted there in 1799; it has since been adopted by most of the technologically developed countries of the world.
. The ampere is officially defined as the current in a pair of equally long, parallel, straight wires 1 meter apart that produces a force of 0.0000002 newton (2 × 10−7 N) between the wires for each meter of their length. Current meters such as ammeters and galvanometers are calibrated in reference to a current balance that actually measures the force between two wires.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Ampere

(1) A unit of electric current strength, one of the fundamental units of the International System of Units and of the mksa system of electrical and magnetic units. It was named in honor of the French physicist A. Ampère; the Russian symbol is “a,” and the international is A. From the time the ampere was first introduced as a unit of the strength of a current (1881, first International Congress of Electricians), its definition has undergone a series of changes. Initially the ampere was defined as the current strength that flows along a conductor having a resistance of 1 ohm when the potential difference at the ends of the conductor is 1 volt. In this instance the volt was defined as 108and the ohm as 109 times the corresponding units in the cgs electromagnetic system.

The difficulties of reproducing practically the absolute electrical units established theoretically led to the introduction of international electric units (1893) which were based on material standards. The international ampere was defined as the strength of a constant electrical current that, while flowing through an aqueous solution of silver nitrate, would deposit 0.00111800 g of silver in one second. Subsequent progress in electrical measurements made it possible to discard the material standard ampere (after 1948). In the All-Union State Standard (GOST) 9867–61, “International System of Units,” the ampere is determined in terms of the interaction of two currents: An ampere is the strength of a constant current which, while being sustained in two parallel straight conductors of infinite length and negligible circular cross section located at a distance of 1 m from each other in a vacuum, will develop between these two conductors a force equal to 2 × 10-7 units of force in the mksa system per meter of length. The ampere is generated by means of a so-called current balance, or ampere-balance which permits a highly accurate measurement of the mechanical interaction force between two coils carrying the current and, consequently, of the current strength. The international ampere differs slightly from the absolute ampere: 1 Aint = 0.99985A.

(2) A unit of magnetomotive force (in the SI and mksa systems). An ampere is the magnetomotive force along a closed loop coupled with a dc loop of 1 A strength. The relation between the gilbert (a unit of the cgs system) and the ampere is: 1 gilbert = 10/ 4π A = 0.7958 A. The old name of the unit of magnetomotive force was ampere-turn (AT).

### REFERENCES

Malikov, S. F. Edinitsy elektricheskikh i magnitnykh velichin: Is-toricheskii ocherk, 2nd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960.
Burdun, G. D. Edinitsy fizicheskikh velichin, 4th ed. Moscow, 1966.
Burdun, G. D., N. V. Kalashnikov, and L. R. Stotskii, Mezhdunarodnaia sistema edinits. Moscow, 1964.

## ampere

[′am‚pir]
(electricity)
The unit of electric current in the rationalized meter-kilogram-second system of units; defined in terms of the force of attraction between two parallel current-carrying conductors. Abbreviated a; A; amp.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## ampere

The International Standard unit for electrical current. A unit of the rate of flow of electric current; an electromotive force of 1 volt acting across a resistance of 1 ohm results in a current flow of 1 ampere.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## ampere

1. the basic SI unit of electric current; the constant current that, when maintained in two parallel conductors of infinite length and negligible cross section placed 1 metre apart in free space, produces a force of 2 × 10--7 newton per metre between them. 1 ampere is equivalent to 1 coulomb per second CHECK FORMULA
2. a former unit of electric current (international ampere); the current that, when passed through a solution of silver nitrate, deposits silver at the rate of 0.001118 gram per second. 1 international ampere equals 0.999835 ampere
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005

## Ampere

(unit, electronics)
(Amp, A) The unit of electrical current flow. One Amp is the current that will flow through a one-ohm resistance when one Volt DC is applied across it.

## ampere

A measurement of electrical current in a circuit, commonly called an "amp." Contrast with "volts," which is a measure of force, or pressure, behind the current. Multiplying amps times volts derives "watts," the total measurement of power. In electrical equations such as Ohm's Law, the symbol for ampere is "I" (see ohm).

One ampere is 6,280,000,000,000,000,000 (6.28 x 1018) electrons passing by the point of measurement in one second. See ampere-hour, volt and watt.
Copyright © 1981-2019 by The Computer Language Company Inc. All Rights reserved. THIS DEFINITION IS FOR PERSONAL USE ONLY. All other reproduction is strictly prohibited without permission from the publisher.
References in periodicals archive ?
Wide variations in input resistances, ranging from 24 to 814.1K[OMEGA], in threshold currents, ranging from 36 to 1,232 nanoamperes, and the resting membrane potential of -77.50 [+ or -] 0.3554 mV (n = 109) were found in the papillary muscles of the diabetic rats, while in the control rats the variations in input resistance range from 24 to 316.5 K[OMEGA] and corresponding threshold current ranges from 1,232 to 94 nanoamps with a resting membrane potential of -76.62 [+ or -] 0.5664 mV (n = 252).
On the other end of the current measurement scale, the Signametrics SM2064 has five shunts and measures nanoamperes of current with picoampere resolution while imposing a burden voltage of less than 1 mV on the circuit under test.
These analyses were carried out on a Jeol Superprobe 733 using an accelerating voltage of 15 KV and a beam current of 25 nanoamperes. The electron beam was defocussed to [TABULAR DATA FOR TABLE 1 OMITTED] 20 microns to minimize sample decomposition.

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