jet fuel

(redirected from Naphtha-type jet fuel)

jet fuel

[′jet ¦fyül]
(materials)
Special grade of kerosine with a flash point of 125°F (52°C), used for jet aircraft; may have methane or naphthene added to produce a 110°F (43°C) flash point, for military aircraft.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Jet Fuel

 

the fuel used in jet aircraft engines. The most common jet fuels are kerosine fractions obtained by straight-run distillation of low-sulfur and high-sulfur crude oils; examples of these fuels are the domestic jet fuels T-l (from low-sulphur crude oil) and TS-1 (from high-sulphur crude oil). Fuels with high thermal stability, such as the domestic fuel RT and the foreign fuels A, A-l, and B, are manufactured by hydrofining fractions derived from straight-run distillation. Other components used in the production of jet fuels are obtained by hydrocracking and the removal or conversion of mercaptans.

The most important properties of a jet fuel are its density and heat of combustion (see Table 1), which determine the flight range. A jet fuel should have high thermal stability, particularly if it is to be used in supersonic aircraft, where the temperature of the fuel in the tanks may exceed 150°-200°C. High thermal stability is attained by removing nonhydrocarbon impurities, such as sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen compounds, from the fuel, for instance, by hydrogenation. Such processing (seeREFINING OF PETROLEUM PRODUCTS) also ensures that the jet fuel will have low corrosiveness.

In order to improve the stability of refined fuels during storage, antioxidants (up to 24 mg/liter) and additives to deactivate metals (6 milliliters/liter) are used. Jet fuels contain dissolved water (up to 0.008–0.01 percent at normal temperatures), which can separate from the fuel as conditions change, causing electrochemical corrosion in the fuel system or the formation of ice crystals. For this reason, corrosion inhibitors (10–45 mg/liter) and deicing additives (0.1–0.3 percent by volume) are used. Other additives prevent the accumulation of static electricity and improve the wear-inhibiting qualities of the fuel.

Table 1. Basic physical and chemical characteristics of jet fuels manufactured in the USSR
CharacteristicGrade of fuel
T-1TS-1Thermally stable
RTT-6
*10,250 kilocalories/kg †10,300 kilocalories/kg
Density at 20°C (kg/m3)≥800≥775≥775≥840
Fractional composition:    
10% distilled at (°C)≤175°≤165°≤175°≤195°
98% distilled at (°C)≤280°≤250°≤280°≤315°
Minimum heat ofcombustion (kilojoules/kg) … .≥43,050*≥43,050*≥43,260†≥43,260†
Onset of crystallization (°C)≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°≤–60°
Total sulfur content (%) .≤0.10≤0.25≤0.10≤0.05
Mercaotan sulfur content (%)≤0.005≤0.001

REFERENCES

Nefteprodukty. Edited by B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1966. Zrelov, V. N., and V. A. Piskunov. Reaktivnye dvigateli i toplivo. Moscow, 1968.
Zarubezhnye topliva, masla iprisadki. Edited by I. V. Rozhkov and B. V. Losikov. Moscow, 1971.

I. V. ROZHKOV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

jet fuel

Fuels designed for use in gas turbine engines.
An Illustrated Dictionary of Aviation Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved
References in periodicals archive ?
jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel are from EIA's
assigned to the transportation sector, while naphtha-type jet fuel is
for kerosene-type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel (see
Note: Beginning with January 2004 data, naphtha-type jet fuel is included in Miscellaneous Products.
Naphtha-Type Jet Fuel. A fuel in the heavy naphtha boiling range having an average gravity of 52.8 degrees API, 20 to 90 percent distillation temperatures of 290 degrees to 470 degrees Fahrenheit, and meeting Military Specification MIL-T-5624L (Grade JP-4).
Petroleum products include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet fuel, kerosene-type jet fuel, kerosene, distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, road oil, still gas, and miscellaneous products.
Product supplied data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene-type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel are from EIA's PSA, PSM, and earlier publications (see sources for Table 3.5).
"Other" petroleum products include pentanes plus, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, still gas (refinery gas), waxes, and miscellaneous products; beginning in 1981, also includes negative barrels per day of distillate and residual fuel oil reclassified as unfinished oils, and other products (from both primary and secondary supply) reclassified as gasoline blending components; beginning in 1983, also includes crude oil burned as fuel; and beginning in 2005, also includes naphtha-type jet fuel. These data are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in MER Table A1.
Beginning in 2005, kerosene-type jet fuel is assigned to the transportation sector, while naphtha-type jet fuel is classified under "Other Petroleum Products," which is assigned to the industrial sector.
Transportation sector consumption data in thousand barrels per day for kerosene-type jet fuel and, through 2004, naphtha-type jet fuel (see sources for Table 3.7c) are converted to trillion Btu by multiplying by the appropriate heat content factors in Table A10 Total transportation sector jet fuel consumption is the sum of the data in trillion Btu for kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel.
Beginning in 2005, kerosene-type jet fuel is consumed by the transportation sector, while naphtha-type jet fuel is classified under "Other Petroleum Products," which is assigned to the industrial sector.
(h) Through 2004, includes kerosene-type and naphtha-type jet fuel. Beginning in 2005, includes kerosene-type jet fuel only; naphtha-type jet fuel is included in "Other Products." (i) Includes propylene.