National Labor Relations Board


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Financial, Acronyms, Wikipedia.
Related to National Labor Relations Board: Department of Labor, National Labor Relations Act

National Labor Relations Board

(NLRB), independent agency of the U.S. government created under the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act), and amended by the acts of 1947 (Taft-Hartley Labor ActTaft-Hartley Labor Act,
1947, passed by the U.S. Congress, officially known as the Labor-Management Relations Act. Sponsored by Senator Robert Alphonso Taft and Representative Fred Allan Hartley, the act qualified or amended much of the National Labor Relations (Wagner) Act of
..... Click the link for more information.
) and 1959 (Landrum-Griffin ActLandrum-Griffin Act,
1959, passed by the U.S. Congress, officially known as the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act. It resulted from hearings of the Senate committee on improper activities in the fields of labor and management, which uncovered evidence of collusion
..... Click the link for more information.
), which affirmed labor's right to organize and bargain collectively through representatives of their own choice or to refrain from such activities. The board of five members (appointed by the U.S. President with the approval of the Senate for five-year terms) is assisted by 33 regional directors. This board determines proper bargaining units, conducts elections for union representation, and investigates charges of unfair labor practices by employers. Unfair practices include interference, coercion, or restraint in labor's self-organizational rights; interference with the formation of labor unions; encouraging or discouraging membership in a union; and refusal to bargain collectively with a duly chosen employee representative. The NLRB does not have the power to consider cases involving real estate brokers, agricultural employees, domestic workers, family workers, government employees, and church-run schools.

History

The Wagner Act, which established the NLRB, was validated by the Supreme Court in 1937. The NLRB functioned during World War II, but labor relations were mainly handled by the National War Labor Board (WLB), which existed from 1942 until 1945. A 12-man body, with the public, management, and labor equally represented, the WLB soon shifted from arbitration to formulating policies.

With the passage in 1947 of the Taft-Hartley Labor Act (also known as the Labor-Management Relations Act), the NLRB was converted into a purely judicial body, with the prosecution of unfair labor practices transferred to a general counsel. The board's action was dependent upon the filing by the union chiefs of affidavits proving that they were not Communists and of complete financial data. The NLRB's field of investigation was extended to cover the following practices as unfair to employers: refusal to bargain collectively, coercing employers in the selection of their bargaining agency, persuading employers to discriminate against certain employees, and conducting secondary boycotts or jurisdictional strikes.

In 1959 the Taft-Hartley Labor Act was amended by the Landrum-Griffin Act (also known as the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act), which repealed the requirement that a union must file a non-Communist affidavit and a financial report in order to obtain a hearing before the NLRB. The act also gave the states permission to assume jurisdiction over cases that the NLRB declined, even when interstate commerce was involved. Organizational and recognition picketing (i.e., picketing of companies where another union is already recognized) were made unlawful, and the NLRB general counsel was required to seek an injunction against such picketing if a violation was proved.

The Landrum-Griffin Act also affected policies of the board. It banned secondary boycott pressures and, with some exceptions, outlawed so-called hot-cargo agreements (i.e., express or implied contracts that prevent employers from doing business with persons declared off limits by unions). The NLRB's power was subsequently extended to postal workers (1970) and private health care institutions (1974), but a number of court rulings have reduced the board's power. During the 1980s organized labor attacked the NLRB for being pro-employer.

Bibliography

See bibliography under labor lawlabor law,
legislation dealing with human beings in their capacity as workers or wage earners. The Industrial Revolution, by introducing the machine and factory production, greatly expanded the class of workers dependent on wages as their source of income.
..... Click the link for more information.
.

National Labor Relations Board

independent agency of U.S. government, supporting labor’s right to organize. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 1887]
See: Labor
References in periodicals archive ?
By returning the composition of the National Labor Relations Board from a partisan operation to one that will look out for both hardworking Americans and job creators, we are taking another step toward helping restore Americas economy, said Isakson.
Petitioning the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) set in motion mechanisms defined by law that are different from those that we are accustomed to using day by day.
It does not hold that all nurses who direct the work of others are supervisors, but rather leaves it to the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) the authority to make that determination on a case-by-case basis.
COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE Seventh Circuit has approved a corporate-wide cease-and-desist order by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) against Beverly California Corp.
What about the legions of government employees, mostly lawyers, who enforce these federal laws--the General Counsel's Office of the National Labor Relations Board, the National Labor Relations Board's Administrative Law Judges, the EEOC, the Department of Labor, etc.
Agencies already moved in include the Internal Revenue Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Department of Energy, Department of Labor, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Railroad Retirement Board, National Labor Relations Board, Social Security Administration, Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms, among others.
As expected, the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) today advised the Santa Barbara News-Press that a hearing has been scheduled in Santa Barbara on February 26, 2007 on pending charges brought by the Teamsters against the paper, which the NLRB determined should be consolidated.
We are filing an unfair labor practices charge with the National Labor Relations Board," said Deborah J.
The union voted in favor of organizing last fall, but the Burbank hospital filed a set of appeals with the National Labor Relations Board.
National Labor Relations Board that a chemical plant worker was not entitled to $67,000 in back pay and fines even though he was fired illegally for union organizing.
Attorney, National Labor Relations Board, Department of Energy, Department of Labor and GSA.
The National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) advised the Santa Barbara News-Press today that the Teamsters withdrew four more unfair labor practice claims filed against the paper.

Encyclopedia browser ?
Full browser ?