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in dyeing, an insoluble pigmentpigment,
substance that imparts color to other materials. In paint, the pigment is a powdered substance which, when mixed in the liquid vehicle, imparts color to a painted surface.
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 formed by the reaction between an organic dye and a mordantmordant
[Fr.,=biting], substance used in dyeing to fix certain dyes (mordant dyes) in cloth. Either the mordant (if it is colloidal) or a colloid produced by the mordant adheres to the fiber, attracting and fixing the colloidal mordant dye (see colloid); the insoluble, colored
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. The color of a lake depends upon the mordant as well as the dye used. Generally, lakes are not as colorfast as many inorganic dyes, but their colors are more brilliant.


inland body of standing water occupying a hollow in the earth's surface. The study of lakes and other freshwater basins is known as limnology. Lakes are of particular importance since they act as catchment basins for close to 40% of the landscape, supply drinking water, generate electricity, are used to irrigate fields, and serve as recreational areas.

The Environment of Lakes

The primary source of lake water is precipitation that may enter the depression directly, as runoff from surrounding higher ground, or through underground springs. Unique flora and fauna live around a lake and vary depending on the size and shape of the lake and the surrounding rocks and soil. Flora and fauna in the lake are usually found in three zones: the littoral zone closest to the shallow water shore; the limnetic, in the open, well-lit water away from most vegetation; and the lower profundal zones areas of low oxygen and light.

Ponds are generally small, shallow lakes; the criterion for differentiating between ponds and lakes is usually temperature. Ponds have a more consistent temperature throughout; while lakes, because they are deeper, have a stratified temperature structure that depends on the season.

Global Distribution of Lakes

Lakes are not evenly distributed on the earth's surface; most are located in high latitudes and mountainous regions. Canada alone contains nearly 50% of the world's lakes. Although lakes are usually thought to be freshwater bodies, many lakes, especially in arid regions, become quite salty because a high rate of evaporation concentrates inflowing salts. The Caspian Sea, Dead Sea, and Great Salt Lake are among the greatest of the world's salt lakes. The Great Lakes of the United States and Canada is the world's largest system of freshwater lakes. Lake Superior alone is the world's largest freshwater lake with an area of 31,820 sq mi (82,414 sq km), although there is a larger volume of freshwater in Lake Baykal. The Caspian Sea is the largest lake in the world, with an area of c.144,000 sq mi (372,960 sq km). Lake Titicaca in the Andes Mts. of South America is the world's highest large lake at 12,500 ft (3,800 m) above sea level; the Dead Sea is the lowest at c.1,400 ft (425 m) below sea level.

Formation and Fate of Lakes

Many lakes were formed as a result of glacial action during the PleistocenePleistocene epoch
, 6th epoch of the Cenozoic era of geologic time (see Geologic Timescale, table). According to a classification that considered its deposits to have been formed by the biblical great flood, the epoch was originally called the Quaternary.
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 ice sheets. In some areas, as exemplified by the Great Lakes, basins were carved into bedrock by the erosive action of the advancing ice mass. Lake basins are also formed by glacial morainemoraine
, a formation composed of unsorted and unbedded rock and soil debris called till, which was deposited by a glacier. The till that falls on the sides of a valley glacier from the bounding cliffs makes up lateral moraines, running parallel to the valley sides.
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 deposits that dam preexisting stream valleys. Lakes also form in calderas, created by the collapse of volcanic craters. Where extensive limestone deposits underlie a region, groundwater can dissolve great volumes of the limestone, forming caves that often contain underground lakes and eventually, if the roofs collapse, leave deep lake basins. Tectonic activity in the earth's crust forms lake basins in many ways, such as fault-generating rift valleysrift valley,
elongated depression, trough, or graben in the earth's crust, bounded on both sides by normal faults and occurring on the continents or under the oceans. The central flat block forming the trough slips downward relative to the crustal blocks on either side.
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 as those found in E Africa, that often fill with water. Oxbow lakes form in abandoned stream channels in floodplains of meandering rivers. Deposition of sediment along a shoreline can cut off bays, forming coastal lagoons. Humans often form lakes by building dams across river valleys for flood control, hydroelectric generation, or recreational purposes.

Lakes are transient features on the earth's surface and generally disappear in a relatively short period of geologic time by a combination of processes (e.g., erosion of an outlet or climatic changes that bring drier conditions). In a process called eutrophication, a lake gradually fills with organic and inorganic sediment, becoming a swamp or bog, and eventually a meadow. Human activity has greatly increased the rates of eutrophication; urban and suburban land construction activities result in increased discharge of soil debris into streams draining into lakes, filling them.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

What does it mean when you dream about a lake?

A lake can represent our subconscious or our inner feelings. A dream about a lake might also be alluding to the familiar idiom “go jump in a lake.”

The Dream Encyclopedia, Second Edition © 2009 Visible Ink Press®. All rights reserved.


An inland body of water, small to moderately large, with its surface water exposed to the atmosphere.
Any of a large group of dyes that have been combined with or adsorbed by salts of calcium, barium, chromium, aluminum, phosphotungstic acid, or phosphomolybdic acid; used for textile dyeing. Also known as color lake.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


Any of a number of bright pigments which are prepared from animal, vegetable, or coal-tar coloring matter, or formed synthetically; used in paints.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.


an expanse of water entirely surrounded by land and unconnected to the sea except by rivers or streams
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005


All bodies of water generally represent our emotions and our unconscious. Old dream interpretation books say that lakes are associated with romantic feelings. If the lake is calm, your love life is probably in such good shape that you feel safe. Stormy water means to strap yourself in and get ready for a bumpy ride. If you see a monster in the water, your unconscious may be suggesting that you have competition (or some unseen issue or problem). For a more serious and contemplative definition of this dream symbol, please see:Water, Ocean
Bedside Dream Dictionary by Silvana Amar Copyright © 2007 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Above: The Lake of Menteith is Scotland's only natural lake and is designated a 'site of special scientific interest'
"A lot of the time you have to fish pits differently than a natural lake, though.
in Lake Village, Arkansas, and finishing in downtown Greenville, runners will embark on a mostly flat and picturesque course filled with Delta highpoints, including Lake Chicot, Arkansas's largest natural lake and America's largest oxbow lake, as well as the spot where Charles Lindberg's first recorded night flight took place and a scenic Mississippi River view from the Lake Village-to-Greenville bridge.
Pakistan maintains the construction of Wullar Barrage will convert the natural lake into a man-made storage with a capacity of 0.324 million acre feet (MAF) and adversely affect the flow of water into the country.
The lake is big - the second largest natural lake in the state.
Mouse Morris Horse It has to be War Of Attrition Racecourses Cheltenham and Punchestown Racing hero My dad, who was chairman of Galway racecourse committee, and president of the IOC, which he managed to hold together when Britain and America were trying to boycott it Relaxation Golf and photography Holiday destination Spiddal, County Galway Restaurant Chateau Mouse or Morans Of The Weir, County Galway All mixed up Rearrange these words to reveal a 2010 festival winner trained on the doorstep of a picturesque racecourse and not far from England's largest natural lake Egghead Conifer (5,3,6) Answer on page 75 Compiled by Steve Dennis, Peter Scargill and David Dew
Windermere, the largest natural lake in England, currently has high levels of blue-green algae, a bacteria which is toxic to humans.
"Natural habitats such as Teztan Biny are an integral part of First Nations culture in this province and we will stand together to fight any government policy or industry initiative which would allow a natural lake to be destroyed for nothing more than the financial gain of a few shareholders," added John.
Summary: The real reason to stay at these simply furnished cottages is the stunning natural lake.
Batayneh said the remaining 190 million cubic meters would be channeled tow= ards the Dead Sea, the saltiest natural lake on the planet and the lowest p= oint on the earth's surface.
Finnish fish processing plants are now able to process different types of fish and fishery products for sale in supermarkets, and trout meat is often the cheapest meal one can buy in Finland.The new project will allow at least five candidates from Kyrgyzstan to acquire master's degree training in Finland, where they will learn how to run an efficient Fisheries Department and acquire expertise in the development of private fish processing and marketing enterprises based on cultured trout and natural lake catches.FAO is the United Nation's lead agency for providing support to developing countries in sustainable fisheries and aquaculture management.

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