LLEV -

natural log of Financial leverage of firms measured as total debt to total capital;

lnBIXR is the

natural log biennial index relative at the item area stratum level,

At level we accept null hypothesis for

natural logs of GDP, broad money supply, domestic credit to private sector and remittances and we accept alternative hypothesis for the remaining series.

Variation in the

natural log of ECi:5 was most affected (P < 0.001) by variation in the

natural log of [Na.sup.+.sub.exch] (67.2% variance explained), the

natural log of CEC (61.1% variance explained) and the

natural log of [Mg.sup.2+.sub.exch] (57.7% variance explained) (Table 4).

Determinants of hospital earnings management Control Sign Hypothesis Proxy Variables Large hospitals are more likely be targeted for tax-status Hospital Size Negative scrutiny due to high patient revenues and government subsidies;

Natural log therefore, managers of Total Assets are likely to use discretionary accruals to lower income (Morrisey, Wedig and Hassan 1996).

LFGPBR t-1 =

Natural log of lagged farm gate price of basmati rice (Rs/40kg)

natural log number of hours at work assignment per week,

natural log Now, taking the

natural log of both sides of equation (10), (10) and differentiating with respect to t, we obtain

Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare canopy height,

natural log transformed shoot density, and percent cover between segments of the marsh by month for each species and among species.

where aid amount is the

natural log of the annual per capita ODA, recipient need is captured by the

natural log of the annual per capita GDP and the

natural log of total population.

Adjusting for a wide range of potential cofounders, including age, gender, race, urinary creatinine, poverty, body mass index, smoking, and smoke exposure, they found that, for every

natural log increase in urinary enterolactone, the odds of asthma decreased by 8%.

Where BA denotes the average of percentage spread for equity i during the given period; DA represents the measure of earnings management; SDRET is the standard deviation of daily stock returns for the sample period; LNTV denotes the

natural log of the average daily trading dollar volume for the sample period; LNCLP represents the

natural log of the average closing stock price for the sample period; LNTR denotes the

natural log of the average daily total number of trades for the sample period; LNMV is the

natural log of the market value of the firm at the end of the sample period.