LLEV - natural log
of Financial leverage of firms measured as total debt to total capital;
lnBIXR is the natural log
biennial index relative at the item area stratum level,
At level we accept null hypothesis for natural logs
of GDP, broad money supply, domestic credit to private sector and remittances and we accept alternative hypothesis for the remaining series.
Variation in the natural log
of ECi:5 was most affected (P < 0.001) by variation in the natural log
of [Na.sup.+.sub.exch] (67.2% variance explained), the natural log
of CEC (61.1% variance explained) and the natural log
of [Mg.sup.2+.sub.exch] (57.7% variance explained) (Table 4).
Determinants of hospital earnings management Control Sign Hypothesis Proxy Variables Large hospitals are more likely be targeted for tax-status Hospital Size Negative scrutiny due to high patient revenues and government subsidies; Natural log
therefore, managers of Total Assets are likely to use discretionary accruals to lower income (Morrisey, Wedig and Hassan 1996).
LFGPBR t-1 = Natural log
of lagged farm gate price of basmati rice (Rs/40kg)
number of hours at work assignment per week, natural log
Now, taking the natural log
of both sides of equation (10), (10) and differentiating with respect to t, we obtain
Mixed models with repeated measures were used to compare canopy height, natural log
transformed shoot density, and percent cover between segments of the marsh by month for each species and among species.
where aid amount is the natural log
of the annual per capita ODA, recipient need is captured by the natural log
of the annual per capita GDP and the natural log
of total population.
Adjusting for a wide range of potential cofounders, including age, gender, race, urinary creatinine, poverty, body mass index, smoking, and smoke exposure, they found that, for every natural log
increase in urinary enterolactone, the odds of asthma decreased by 8%.
Where BA denotes the average of percentage spread for equity i during the given period; DA represents the measure of earnings management; SDRET is the standard deviation of daily stock returns for the sample period; LNTV denotes the natural log
of the average daily trading dollar volume for the sample period; LNCLP represents the natural log
of the average closing stock price for the sample period; LNTR denotes the natural log
of the average daily total number of trades for the sample period; LNMV is the natural log
of the market value of the firm at the end of the sample period.