indicated the clade Aphelocheiridae + Potamocoridae and ranked it as a new superfamily, Aphelocheiroidea; furthermore, they placed the Ochteridae and Gelastocoridae (Ochteroidea) in a new position, that is, as a branch under the Naucoridae (Naucoroidea).
 was generally congruent with the traditional classification of Mahner ; however, a new superfamily of the Aphelocheiroidea (Aphelocheiridae + Potamocoridae) was evaluated, and moreover the Naucoroidea were restricted to only one family (Naucoridae) and the Ochteroidea received a new position (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae).
, on the basis of four Hox genes, supported the monophylies of the Nepomorpha, Naucoroidea (Aphelocheiridae + Naucoridae), Nepoidea (Belostomatidae + Nepidae), Ochteroidea (Ochteridae + Gelastocoridae), and Pleoidea (Pleidae + Helotrephidae); the Ochteroidea were the most basal lineage; the Notonectoidea contained Notonectidae only and formed a new sister relationship with the (Pleoidea + Naucoroidea) and the sister relationship with (Nepoidea + Corixoidea).
The classification system and the relationships among super(families) of the Nepomorpha with the Ochteroidea as the basal lineage and the configuration of the clade Pleoidea + Naucoroidea as well as the clade Nepoidea + Corixoidea presented by Li et al.
(iii) The Potamocoridae is recognized as a sister group to the Naucoridae (Figure 4) and they together form the superfamily Naucoroidea (Naucoridae + Potamocoridae) (Figure 6).
Mahner's (1993) scheme differs from Rieger's (1976) in the position of Corixidae, which is considered the sister group of (Ochteroidea + (Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea)); whereas in Rieger's scheme the position of the Ochteroidea and Corixidae are inverted [i.e., (Ochteroidea + (Corixidae + ("Naucoroidea" + Notonectoidea)))].
They found support for the monophyly of all Nepomorpha families, and superfamilies except Naucoroidea (i.e., Naucoridae, Aphelocheiridae, and Potamocoridae).