Naval Blockade

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Naval Blockade


in international law, a system of measures undertaken during armed conflict. Its aim is to preclude the enemy’s access to a seacoast so that the enemy will be forced to relinquish the use of its own or occupied ports, naval bases, and shores with adjacent seawaters for commercial and all other maritime relations with other states. By declaring a naval blockade, the belligerent states attempt to cut off the maritime communications of a hostile state in order to weaken the enemy’s economic resources to the maximum and deprive it of the possibility of trading with neutral countries.

A naval blockade is not merely a particular method of struggle between belligerent parties; it is also a military measure that infringes upon the interests of nonbelligerent states insofar as its implementation obstructs the maintenance of communications with the blockaded region, and all attempts by ships to pass through to the blockaded point may end in their seizure by the blockading party.

Naval blockades are regulated by the rules of the declarations of Paris (1856) and London (1909) and by the customary norms of international law. In accordance with the Declaration of London of 1909, when a blockade is declared the date when it begins, the geographical boundaries of the blockaded shore, and the period of time in which neutral vessels are to leave blockaded ports must be indicated. Neutral states are to be notified of the declaration of a naval blockade through diplomatic channels.

In international law there is also the concept of a naval blockade carried out in peacetime as an enforcement action against a state that has violated norms of international law.

The UN Charter provides for a naval blockade as a possible collective measure to reestablish and maintain international peace and security; it is undertaken by decision of the UN Security Council. In all other cases, an armed blockade carried out first by one state against another is to be regarded as an act of armed aggression. According to the definition of aggression proposed by the USSR and confirmed in the Conferences of London of 1933, the state that first establishes a naval blockade of the shores or ports of another state must be recognized as the attacking party.

The norms of international law on blockades mentioned above have been grossly and repeatedly violated by the imperialist states. For example, in October 1962 the US Navy was ordered to intercept all ships bound for Cuba, subject them to examination, and prevent the passage of any vessel with arms defined as offensive by the American authorities. These actions by the USA constituted a gross defiance of the norms of international law and, in particular, the principles of the UN Charter. Waging an aggressive war in Vietnam, the USA organized so-called patrolling by the warships of the American Seventh Fleet in the South China Sea—that is, an illegal naval blockade of the shores of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam was, in effect, set up.


References in periodicals archive ?
Activists made nine attempts to break Israel's naval blockade, including the epic of the Mavi Marmara.
the specific impact of the naval blockade on the civilian
By recommending a naval blockade in the Persian Gulf, Congress could likely be responsible for oil prices approaching $200 a barrel, which translates to nearly $7.
However, measures such as a naval blockade, which could easily escalate into hostilities, should be avoided for the time being, and diplomatic efforts to end North Korea's nuclear aspirations should be strengthened rather than abandoned.
In October 1961, after tense negotiations over 13 days and an American naval blockade of Cuba, the Soviet missiles were withdrawn (so were American missiles in Turkey, near the Soviet border).
1800 French troops surrendered Malta to the British following Nelson's naval blockade.
Kennedy had just ordered a naval blockade of Cuba in to force the Soviet Union to remove its nuclear missiles.
On North Korea, for example, once the authors have got out of their system the absurd (outside certain Strangeloveesque circles) option of a first strike on Yongbyon even at the cost of the certain destruction of Seoul (it's the South Koreans' fault, the authors argue, for not protecting themselves adequately), they propose an option short of war that may be worth considering: an air and naval blockade.
The Union warship was part of a naval blockade that was suffocating Charleston and other Confederate ports.
Earlier today, sources disclosed that Yemen's Ansarullah movement is likely to attack the Saudi naval forces in reaction to the naval blockade imposed on the Yemeni people.
Also the 'San Remo Manual' of 1994 sets restrictions to naval blockades in Article 102, prohibiting the establishment of a naval blockade if:

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