Necessary Product

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Necessary Product

 

the portion of social product created by workers engaged in material production that is necessary for the normal reproduction of their physical and cultural capacities and those of their families, given existing socioeconomic conditions. The time required to produce necessary product is called necessary labor-time, and the labor expended during this time is called necessary labor.

Necessary product can be measured both as aggregate social product and as the proportion established within the latter between necessary product and surplus product. In social formations where class relations are antagonistic, the latter measure is exploitative, as the ruling classes try to enlarge surplus product by intensifying exploitation of the worker and reducing necessary product. Under the slaveholding system and feudalism, the amount of necessary product was determined by the low level of labor productivity and by actual relations of exploitation, while the dominance of a natural economy limited surplus labor, and thus surplus product, to a more or less narrow range of needs (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 23, p. 247).

The goal inherent in the development of capitalist production is the creation and acquisition of surplus value. Capitalists try to reduce the level of necessary product required to reproduce labor-power as a commodity and in this way to enlarge surplus product. With the development of capitalism, a decrease in the relative share of necessary product within aggregate social product is caused by the rising productivity of social labor. This holds primarily for the consumer goods sector, but also for the production of the means of production used in the consumer goods sector. But alongside such factors leading toward a decrease in the proportion of necessary product, opposing tendencies also appear, including above all the struggle of the working class in capitalist countries for increased wages and social rights. The growing intensification of labor makes it necessary to increase expenditures intended to compensate for additional exertions of physical, emotional, and mental energy by the worker. Finally, under conditions of the present-day scientific and technological revolution, expenditures for raising the educational level and vocational-technical training of the working class also rise.

Under socialism, with planned social production and social ownership, the antagonism between necessary and surplus product is eliminated. The reproduction of necessary product is not restricted to the needs of reproducing labor-power but is subordinate instead to the goal of comprehensive development of the cultural and physical capacities of the workers. One part of necessary product is distributed for consumption according to work, while the other is allocated through social consumption funds in the form of additional payments and services. Necessary product is thus expended for individual needs, such as food and clothing, and in the form of collective consumption, such as schools, libraries, and medical institutions.

REFERENCES

Marx, K. Kapital, vol. 1, chs. 8, 9. K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 23.
Marx, K. Kapital, vol. 3, chs. 1, 9, 10. Ibid., vol. 25, part 2.
Marx, K. Kritika Gotskoi program my. Ibid., vol. 19.
Engels, F. Anti-Dühring, sec. 3, ch. 4. Ibid., vol. 20.
Lenin, V. I. Zamechaniia na vtoroi proekt program my Plekhanova. Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 6, p. 232.
Lenin, V. I. K chetyrekhletnei godovshchine Oktiabr’skoi revoliutsii. Ibid., vol. 44.

A. A. KHANDRUEV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Now, SSH will act as the sales partner for Kyberleijona Ltd and will provide the necessary product development, support and administrative services.
This so-called wax, called cerumen, is a necessary product for the ear canal.
As a certified body of Saso, UL can now issue the necessary product certifications to help clients bring their safety-certified goods into the kingdom, said a statement.
"I started Thousand because I saw a necessary product that nobody else was making," says Gloria Hwang.
"SPOT seeks to be the solution for two major challenges facing the building industry --the time required to find necessary product data in multiple locations, and help ensure that the information they find is accurate and can be trusted," says Carlos Correia, President of UL Supply Chain & Sustainability.
The FDA reiterated that unregistered drug products are health hazards since they did not undergo the necessary product evaluation, registration and testing by the government to ensure their safety and efficacy.
Packaging will begin producing 294-panel outserts that provide a significant increase in copy space for necessary product information and instructions.
The outsert allows for an expanded number of panels, which, in turn, yields a significant increase in copy space for necessary product information and instructions.
Off Grid Energy's Grid to Go hybrid generator was described by the ERA judges as a 'necessary product', who also said they were impressed that it 'cleverly combines the benefits of lower energy use with reduced wear and tear on generators'.
"Engineering technology provides the necessary product standardisation, robustness and design.
It also creates larger back panels that can carry necessary product or multi-language information in easily readable type.
On the floor throughout Giordano stores nationwide till the end of this year, the retailer's staff will participate in a number of training workshops and team-building exercises to equip them with the necessary product knowledge and social skills to best serve customers according to Giordano's global standards.

Full browser ?