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1. the language of the Netherlands, belonging to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family and quite closely related to German and English
2. the Dutch the natives, citizens, or inhabitants of the Netherlands



a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense), the principal inhabitants of the Netherlands. They number approximately 12.6 million (1970, estimate). In addition, approximately 1 million Dutch live in the USA, Canada, the West Indies, Indonesia, and other countries. They speak Dutch. The majority of believers are Protestants (Calvinists and others); there are Catholics, Baptists, and others as well.

The nucleus of the Dutch nationality, which was formed in the 14th and 15th centuries, was composed of Germanic tribes of Frisians, Batavi, Saxons, and Franks, mixed with Celts, all of whom lived in the historical area of Holland in the early Middle Ages. The bourgeois revolution of the 16th century in the Netherlands and the national liberation movement against Spain, promoted the national consolidation of the Dutch people. Regional ethnographic differences among the Dutch are now insignificant. The majority of the Dutch are engaged in industry. The rural population forms a relatively small part of the total population and is engaged mainly in livestock raising, truck farming and floriculture and, in the coastal regions, in fishing. The Flemings, living in the southern provinces of the country, are very closely related to the Dutch in language, origin, and culture.


Narody zarubezhnoiEvropy, vol. 2.Moscow, 1965.(Bibliography.)
Byvanch, A.W. Nederland in den romeinschein tijd, parts 1–2.Leiden, 1943.
Barnouw, A.J. Dutch: A Portrait Study of the People of Holland. Oxford, 1940.




the official language of the Netherlands and one of the two official languages of Belgium; also spoken in the USA and the West Indies. Dutch is spoken by approximately 14 million people (1970, estimate).

Dutch belongs to the West Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. It has the following dialects: northwestern (North Dutch), south central (Brabantine and East Flemish), southwestern (West Flemish and Zeeland), northeastern (Saxon), and southeastern (Limburg).

Phonetic features of Dutch include the presence of the voiceless plosive consonants p, t, and k and an abundance of diphthongs. Stress is dynamic, falling usually on the root syllable. Dutch is an analytic language. Its declensional system has few inflections: nouns are inflected in the common and possessive cases, and personal pronouns are inflected in the subject and object cases. A common gender, opposed to the neuter gender, has evolved from the masculine and feminine genders. Adjectives are not declined. Verbs have two simple and six compound tenses, two voices (active and passive), and three moods (indicative, imperative, and subjunctive). A single supradialectal literary language was formed in the 17th century. However, there are regional differences in the written and spoken forms of the literary language. Dutch uses the Latin alphabet.

F. Engels’ work The Frankish Dialect (1st ed., 1935) pointed out the most important problems in the diachronic study of the Dutch language, and also treated questions of Dutch phonetics, morphology, and lexicology.


Engels, F. ”Frankskii period.” In K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 19.
Mironov, S. A. Niderlandskii (gollandskii) iazyk. Moscow, 1965.
Mironov, S. A. Morfologiia imeni ν niderlandskom iazyke. Moscow, 1967. (Contains a bibliography.)
Mironov, S. A. Stanovlenie literaturnoi normy sovremennogo niderlandskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1973.
Franck, J. Etymologisch woordenboek der Nederlandsche taal, 2nd ed. The Hague, 1930. (Supplemented by C. B. van Haeringen, 1936.)
Fonologie van het Nederlands en het Fries. The Hague, 1959.
Haeringen, C. B. van. Netherlandic Language Research, 2nd ed. Leiden, 1960.
Schönfeld, M. , and Van Loey, A. Historische grammatica van het Nederlands, 7th ed. Zutphen, 1965.
Dale, Van. Groot woordenboek der Nederlandse taal, 9th ed. The Hague, 1970.


References in periodicals archive ?
Alongside his chief conductorship of the Nederlands Kamerkoor, he will also remain associated with the Swedish Radio Choir, where he has been chief conductor since 2007.
In the Netherlands he is at present principal guest conductor of the Nederlands Kamerkoor,
Door de manifestaties van "Boerenliefde" in Nederland te vergelijken met het Britse cultureel imperialisme laat hij zien dat de Nederlandse steun aan het "stamverwante" volk in Zuid-Afrika beslist niet belangeloos was.
En terwijl Leyds zich hard maakte voor de vestiging van een historiografische traditie vanuit Afrikaner-nationalistisch perspectief, beijverde Nicolaas Mansvelt, de voormalige Superintendent van Onderwijs die na de val van Pretoria naar Nederland was teruggestuurd en die ook na de oorlog persona non grata zou blijven bij de Britse machthebbers, zich voor de Vereenvoudigde Spelling en bezorgde hij een bundel met Afrikaanse liederen als alternatief voor de populaire deuntjes uit de Engelse music hall.
The evening features three pieces: Sleight of Hand, a work by resident choreographers Paul Lightfoot and Sol Leon; Sleepless, a masterpiece by former Nederlands Dans Theater artistic director Jiri Kylian; and Flockwork, a premiere by ex-dancer Alexander Ekman.
Omdat die skrywers Afrikaans ken en, soos reeds aangedui is, al 'n paar jaar betrokke is by die onderrig van Nederlands aan Afrikaanstaliges, is hulle deeglik bewus van die baie slaggate waarmee hulle leerders by die bemeestering van Nederlands te doen het.
In Nederland le sake anders: pakkies word dadelik oopgemaak en die goeie gewer kan eerlike kommentaar verwag: van negatief tot positief.
Zelfs wanneer we haar jeugdjaren in Zuid-Afrika hierbij in aanmerking nemen, moeten we concluderen dat Nederland een gunstige uitwerking heeft gehad op de dichterlijke productiviteit van Elisabeth Eybers.
In dat geval denk ik dat we kunnen zien welke belangrijke rol Elisabeth Eybers binnen het literaire leven van Zuid-Afrika en Nederland en als intermediair tussen beide landen heeft gespeeld.
Hans Hulscher's masterful direction of Jiri Kylian's Bella Figura (Holland) for the Nederlands Dans Theater is a stunning achievement.
The Supervisory Board of Rabobank Nederland nominated Ron Teerlink and Henk van Dalen as new supervisory directors in order to fill two vacancies.
The transport company will be 100 percent owned by the State, whereas the ownership of the merchant company will remain unchanged, 50 percent owned by the State of the Netherlands and 25 percent each owned by Esso Nederland B.

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