Negative Process

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Negative Process


a chemical process that converts the latent image, which was created in the photosensitive emulsion of still or motion-picture film upon exposure, into a visible image, called a negative.

In the negative process the exposed photosensitive material is developed—that is, the exposed microcrystals of silver halide, which form the negative image, are selectively reconstituted as grains of metallic silver. In color film, an image composed of pigments is formed on the basis of an image consisting of metallic silver. The negative process includes photographic fixation (conversion of the remaining silver halides into soluble salts), washing (removal by water of soluble materials), and drying (removal of water from the film). If the negative image must be corrected, the film undergoes photographic intensification or reduction.

In the treatment of materials for color photography, the reconstituted silver must be removed. For this purpose the film is bleached: the metallic silver is oxidized to water-soluble compounds. It is also hardened, to increase the strength of the photo-sensitive emulsion. The operations in the negative process may be done manually or by special machines.


Iofis, E. A. Tekhnika fotografii. Moscow, 1973.
Shashlov, B. A. Teoriia fotograficheskogo protsessa. Moscow, 1971.
Mikulin, V. P. Fotograficheskii retsepturnyi spravochnik, 4th ed. Moscow, 1972.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mentioned in ?
References in periodicals archive ?
The inflation as a negative process has been tackled in economic literature (Frisch, 1983: 2-10), as well as in legal doctrine (Dutu, 2015: 251).
Once Trump goes in alone on something, recent history has shown the result will be days of after-the-fact scrambling, unorganised surrogate appearances, unclear and changing explanations for the action, and angry tweets about negative process stories.
Donald Tusk, the president of the European Council, has suggested that the UK could pull out of the Brexit process, indicating that other EU leaders would be sympathetic and "if we have a chance to reverse this negative process, we will find allies".
This scenario, according to the Central Bank remains exposed to a revision to a more negative process, given that the pressures still persist, due to the fragility of most export sectors of goods and services, but also of the non recovery global economic activity, particularly in the Eurozone, in a context of successive downward revisions the outlook for the global economy by the International monetary Fund (IMF).
"In general, our stance is that NATO's further expansion is a negative process," Kremlin spokesman Dmitry Peskov ( said .
Either of these latter two options would be best considered as a "negative process control." Note that some assays may employ both a negative amplification control and a negative process control; doing so would allow for almost immediate identification of extraction step contaminations.
In an amusing extract from a 1900 edition of Photographic News that suggests a technological determinism all too familiar in the many inflated claims made for digital photography, it is asserted, 'in photography, as in everything else, the fittest survives, and the fittest negative process is gelatino-bromide on glass, paper and film' (p100).
"It was a negative process. They developed a supportive attitude, telling each other that what they had done wasn't really wrong or wasn't that bad, that at least they weren't taking drugs and being violent.
While the inflammatory response is a potent defense mechanism that the body mounts to counter infection, inflammation itself can be a powerful negative process in the body, contributing to chronic diseases from arthritis to Alzheimer's, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and atherosclerosis.
Change management can seem a deadly and negative process: with this formula for success--already tested at Boeing, Pepsi-Cola, General Motors and other large-scale organizations--small business managers can apply the basic principles to their own management challenges and changes.
In medicine as well as in our society, aging is often considered a universally negative process. We are less likely to consider what is called 'successful aging.' This study did just that by examining people over age 80 that were deemed 'Super Agers.' The researchers discovered that these successful octogenarians had especially thick gray matter (meaning more nerve cells) in the cerebral cortex.
LUKE MCKINNEYStool Seating from wastewater sludge LUKE MCKINNEY t ter sludge THE stool is outdoor public furniture made0 using a carbon negative process from a sustainable and inexhaustible material, wastewater sludge, which is basically treated human excrement.

Full browser ?