We propose that AVPD is primarily maintained via negative reinforcement
of a response chain of anxious and avoidant behaviors.
Automatic negative reinforcement
occurs when a behavior terminates an aversive stimulus directly and the behavior is strengthened.
In the current investigation, we conducted a choice assessment to evaluate the relative influence of preferred toys and parent attention on choice making with two children with disabilities who displayed problem behavior that was maintained by both positive and negative reinforcement
A distinction between positive and negative punishment, paralleling the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement
, requires two new terms: positive punishers and negative punishers.
It appears as if the generalization observed occurred primarily within a class of activities associated with negative reinforcement
For example, two of the participants engaged in the highest level of SIB during the escape condition, indicating that SIB served a negative reinforcement
To date, consistent impulsivity for most adults has been found only in studies using negative reinforcement
by noise termination (Navarick, 1982; Solnick, Kannenberg, Eckerman, & Waller, 1980).
He and his students assessed negative reinforcement
and stimulus control in learned helplessness as a model.
Next, the effects of extinction, negative reinforcement
, and negative reinforcement
combined with access to preferred activities were compared on destructive behavior and task engagement.
1948, 1968, 1974) long recommended against "aversive control," that is, punishment, threats, and negative reinforcement
The first two functional conditions refer to school refusal behavior maintained by negative reinforcement
, or the reduction of unpleasant physical arousal or emotional states triggered by school-based stimuli.
Data suggest that food refusal appeared to be maintained primarily by negative reinforcement
conting encies in three participants, while both inadequate positive reinforcement and naturally occurring negative reinforcement
appeared to control refusal for a fourth participant.