Negro

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Negro

or

Negroid:

see racerace,
one of the group of populations regarded as constituting humanity. The differences that have historically determined the classification into races are predominantly physical aspects of appearance that are generally hereditary.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Negro

 

a term used in many languages to designate persons of the Negroid race.

(1) Negroes constitute the indigenous population of tropical and southern Africa. The use of the term “Negro” as a general ethnic designation is incorrect, since Negroes in Africa belong to a great number of diverse peoples and tribes speaking languages of many linguistic families and groups, for example, Bantu, Eastern Bantoid, Gur, Atlantic, and Nilotic. According to a 1971 estimate, there are more than 200 million Negroes in Africa. Africans do not use the designation “Negro.”

(2) In America, Negroes are the descendants of slaves from different tribes who were brought from Africa during the 16th through the 19th centuries and who have intermixed to a considerable degree with the white and to some degree with the Indian population. They have also adopted the dominant language of the country in which they live (English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch). A 1971 estimate shows their number to be about 100 million (more than two-thirds of whom are mulattoes), including approximately 23 million in the USA and approximately 25 million in Brazil. Most of the remaining Negroes are concentrated in the basin of the Caribbean Sea. The Negroes of America form separate ethnic groups in Haiti, Jamaica, Guyana, and Surinam, as well as on Barbados and certain other islands of the Lesser Antilles, where they constitute the basic population. In some countries, Negroes are part of the basic population, for example, Americans of the USA, Brazilians, Cubans, Venezuelans, Colombians, and Puerto Ricans. The Negroes of the American countries (with the exception of those living in socialist Cuba) usually belong to the most oppressed strata of the working people.

Although Negroes in the USA achieved a certain degree of success during their persistent struggle for equal rights in the 1960’s, they are still subjected to de facto segregation (most of them live in black ghettos). They are discriminated against in hiring, working conditions, wages, education, medical services, and so forth.

REFERENCES

Narody Ameriki, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1959.
Foster, W. Z. Negritianskii narod v istorii Ameriki. Moscow, 1955. (Translated from English.)
Nitoburg, E. L. Chernye getto Ameriki. Moscow, 1971.
Frazier, E. F. The Negro in the United States. New York, 1957.

Negro

 

a river in Argentina, in northern Patagonia. Formed by the confluence of the Neuquén and Limay rivers, which originate in the Andes, the Negro is approximately 1,300 km long, measured from the source of the Neuquén River, and drains an area of 146,000 sq km. It flows over the dry plains of northern Patagonia and empties into the Atlantic. There are freshets in early summer. The mean flow rate is approximately 950 cu m per sec. Some parts of the river are navigable. The El Chocon-Cerros Colorados (on the Limay and the Neuquén rivers, respectively) hydroelectric power complex, Argentina’s largest, is under construction in the Negro River basin.


Negro

 

a river in South America, primarily in Brazil, a left tributary of the Amazon. The Negro originates as the Guainía in Colombia. It is 2,300 km long and drains an area of 691,000 sq km. The upper Negro, to the city of Castanheiro, has many rapids; further down the Negro flows over the Amazon Basin lowland in a wide channel with many islands. It is joined by the Branco, a major tributary, on the left. There are flash floods between March and late August, and the water level is low from October to January. The mean flow rate is 29,300 cu m per sec. The Casiquiare, a left tributary, connects the Negro and the Orinoco River, a classic example of bifurcation of rivers. The Negro is navigable for a distance of approximately 1,000 km from the mouth, where the large port of Manaus is located.


Negro

 

a river in Uruguay, a left tributary of the Uruguay River. The Negro rises in Brazil. It measures approximately 500 km long and drains an area of 70,600 sq km. It flows over plains. The mean flow rate is approximately 700 cu m per sec. A large reservoir, Embalse del Río Negro, and a hydroelectric power plant are in the middle course. The lower Negro is navigable to the city of Mercedes.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Negro

1 Old-fashioned or offensive
a member of any of the dark-skinned indigenous peoples of Africa and their descendants elsewhere

Negro

2 R?o
1. a river in NW South America, rising in E Colombia (as the Guain?a) and flowing east, then south as part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela, entering Brazil and continuing southeast to join the Amazon at Man?us. Length: about 2250 km (1400 miles)
2. a river in S central Argentina, formed by the confluence of the Neuqu?n and Limay Rivers and flowing east and southeast to the Atlantic. Length: about 1014 km (630 miles)
3. a river in central Uruguay, rising in S Brazil and flowing southwest into the Uruguay River. Length: about 467 km (290 miles)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
having to call his wife a "negress" when you, Kaneisha,
The tone is set from the stunning opening 'Portrait of a Negress' - renamed 'Portrait of Madeleine' for the show -painted by Marie-Guillemine Benoist in the short period between the French Revolution's abolition of slavery in 1788 and Napoleon reinstating it in 1802.
In her reading of Woolf's Negress, Marcus notes how her choice of nouns denies the existence of nonwhite Englishwomen while the sentence's central verb--to pass--further situates these figures in nonrelation to one another.
"Portrait of a Negress" was painted in 1800, six years after revolutionary France had abolished slavery in its Caribbean colonies only for Napoleon to reinstate it two years later.
The "negress" Philis was made a slave to her own daughter Niobe "to use and treat as her own and well-obtained property." Identical language was used for Iris, who was bequeathed her three children.
Until January 5, 2014 Kara Walker: Wc at Camden Arts Centre are Exceedingly Proud to Present an Exhibition of Capable Artworks by the Notable Hand of the Celebrated American, Kara Elizabeth Walker, Negress
On the same day, Waugh told Laura that he had "played a game of pegotty [sic] with a pubescent negress in an admiring circle of black nuns" (Letters 293).
For instance, in her projects collected in Narrative of a Negress, Walker uses the most familiar and racist textual and visual figurations and silhouettes, borrowing from sentimental writing, popular romances, slave narratives, and the abundant archive of minstrel rhetoric from previous centuries (Berry et al.
He then sought the coolest room and stretched himself on a pallet in his shirt and trousers, with a negress at his head and another at his feet to keep off the flies ....
In the last section of Dessa Rose called "The Negress" (chapters 5 and 6), Dessa speaks in the first person stating, "I'd taken a dream out of slavery--the one Kaine gived me about freedom.