négritude

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négritude

(nĕg`rĭto͞od', –tyo͞od), a literary movement on the part of French-speaking African and Caribbean writers who lived in Paris during the 1930s, 40s, and 50s. Adherents of négritude included Leopold Sédar SenghorSenghor, Léopold Sédar
, 1906–2001, African statesman and poet; president (1960–80) of the Republic of Senegal, b. Joal. The son of a prosperous landowner, Senghor was extraordinarily gifted in literature and won a scholarship to study at the Sorbonne
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, Léon DamasDamas, Léon
(Léon-Gentran Damas), 1912–78, French poet, b. French Guiana. With Léopold Senghor and Aimé Césaire he was one of the first adherents of négritude, a cultural movement emphasizing black consciousness.
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, and Aimé CésaireCésaire, Aimé
(Aimé Fernand Césaire) , 1913–2008, West Indian poet and essayist who wrote in French. After studying in Paris he became concerned with the plight of blacks in what he considered a decadent Western society.
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, who is said to have coined the term. Characteristic of négritude are a denunciation of Europe's devastation of Africa, a decrying of the coldness and stiffness of Western culture and its lack of the humane qualities found in African cultures, and an assertion of the glories and truths of African history, beliefs, and traditions.

negritude

a cultural and political movement started in the 1930s to encourage the development of pride and dignity in the heritage of black peoples by rediscovering ancient African values and modes of thought. The movement was originally concerned with an artistic and cultural critique of Western societies, but was broadened into a more political programme under the influence of Leopold Senghor (poet and president of Senegal). Negritude was an attempt to raise the consciousness of blacks throughout the world. Compare BLACK POWER MOVEMENT, EQUAL RIGHTS MOVEMENT, BLACK MUSLIMS, RASTAFARIAN.
References in periodicals archive ?
Michael Dash declares that Haitian nationalists had mistaken Firmin "as a precursor to the negritude movement" and that "The irony is that some elements of racial theorizing by the negritude writers are closer to the conception of racial difference promoted Joseph-Arthur de Gobineau whose ideas were famously contested by Firmin in his De I'egalite des races humaines (1885)," "Nineteenth-Century Haiti and the Archipelago of the Americas: Antenor's Firmin Letters from St.
If "the use of Creole elements is indispensable to the creation of a distinct Negritude discursive space" (69), then how to explain that Cesaire never wrote in "lower-class French Creole" (76), indeed shunned Creole completely as a literary language?
Even though the Nardal sisters were genealogical foremothers of Negritude, Aime Cesaire did not codify the term until 1939, in his poem "Cahier d'un retour au pays natal" ("Notebook of a Return to The Native Land").
In Martinique during the 1920s and 1930s, Paulette and Jane Nardal and Suzanne Lacascade contributed to the Negritude movement, writing for the literary journal Tropiques.
This attitude has been quite rightly accused of anti-Arab racism, especially since its beginnings were considerably honed by Negritude, a Black-oriented movement which Samir R.
But, as the titles of the individual lectures suggest, he stood back from immediate issues, returning to a debate he had initiated as a "brash, creative youth" with the high priest of negritude, Leopold Senghor.
Making reference to the racism of Hegel and the "idiotic notions" of "the African soul" ("l'ame africaine") of ethnologists, Mbembe does not consider the possible influence of oppositional views of key twentieth-century figures with which anyone with a university education in France would be acquainted, for example, the Surrealists (who boycotted the Colonial Expositions) and the philosophers and poets of negritude.
This study introduces Joseph Brahim Seid, one of Africa's intellectuals of the first generation of independence, in relation to the ideologisation of his contemporaneous counterparts, to Leopold Sedar Senghor's negritude and Kwame Nkrumah's consciencism.
The Parisian Negritude movement is juxtaposed against revolutionary writing, and often the reservations of African American literary giants, including James Baldwin and Richard Wright.
Why is Fanon's rage at Sartre, for destroying "black zeal" - that moment of Fanon's embrace with negritude, which is almost too embarrassing for the racial deconstructors, who might mutter along with Sartre, "you'll see my boy black identity is only a passing stage" - not taken seriously?
You pass people squatting around a circular communal dinner pot in a square room of the horizontal tenement, where the water is polluted by the drainage from tourist hotel sewage pipes, where the people are force-fed feces, you smell the fruit of negritude.