Negro

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Negro

or

Negroid:

see racerace,
one of the group of populations regarded as constituting humanity. The differences that have historically determined the classification into races are predominantly physical aspects of appearance that are generally hereditary.
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Negro

 

a term used in many languages to designate persons of the Negroid race.

(1) Negroes constitute the indigenous population of tropical and southern Africa. The use of the term “Negro” as a general ethnic designation is incorrect, since Negroes in Africa belong to a great number of diverse peoples and tribes speaking languages of many linguistic families and groups, for example, Bantu, Eastern Bantoid, Gur, Atlantic, and Nilotic. According to a 1971 estimate, there are more than 200 million Negroes in Africa. Africans do not use the designation “Negro.”

(2) In America, Negroes are the descendants of slaves from different tribes who were brought from Africa during the 16th through the 19th centuries and who have intermixed to a considerable degree with the white and to some degree with the Indian population. They have also adopted the dominant language of the country in which they live (English, Portuguese, Spanish, French, Dutch). A 1971 estimate shows their number to be about 100 million (more than two-thirds of whom are mulattoes), including approximately 23 million in the USA and approximately 25 million in Brazil. Most of the remaining Negroes are concentrated in the basin of the Caribbean Sea. The Negroes of America form separate ethnic groups in Haiti, Jamaica, Guyana, and Surinam, as well as on Barbados and certain other islands of the Lesser Antilles, where they constitute the basic population. In some countries, Negroes are part of the basic population, for example, Americans of the USA, Brazilians, Cubans, Venezuelans, Colombians, and Puerto Ricans. The Negroes of the American countries (with the exception of those living in socialist Cuba) usually belong to the most oppressed strata of the working people.

Although Negroes in the USA achieved a certain degree of success during their persistent struggle for equal rights in the 1960’s, they are still subjected to de facto segregation (most of them live in black ghettos). They are discriminated against in hiring, working conditions, wages, education, medical services, and so forth.

REFERENCES

Narody Ameriki, vols. 1–2. Moscow, 1959.
Foster, W. Z. Negritianskii narod v istorii Ameriki. Moscow, 1955. (Translated from English.)
Nitoburg, E. L. Chernye getto Ameriki. Moscow, 1971.
Frazier, E. F. The Negro in the United States. New York, 1957.

Negro

 

a river in Argentina, in northern Patagonia. Formed by the confluence of the Neuquén and Limay rivers, which originate in the Andes, the Negro is approximately 1,300 km long, measured from the source of the Neuquén River, and drains an area of 146,000 sq km. It flows over the dry plains of northern Patagonia and empties into the Atlantic. There are freshets in early summer. The mean flow rate is approximately 950 cu m per sec. Some parts of the river are navigable. The El Chocon-Cerros Colorados (on the Limay and the Neuquén rivers, respectively) hydroelectric power complex, Argentina’s largest, is under construction in the Negro River basin.


Negro

 

a river in South America, primarily in Brazil, a left tributary of the Amazon. The Negro originates as the Guainía in Colombia. It is 2,300 km long and drains an area of 691,000 sq km. The upper Negro, to the city of Castanheiro, has many rapids; further down the Negro flows over the Amazon Basin lowland in a wide channel with many islands. It is joined by the Branco, a major tributary, on the left. There are flash floods between March and late August, and the water level is low from October to January. The mean flow rate is 29,300 cu m per sec. The Casiquiare, a left tributary, connects the Negro and the Orinoco River, a classic example of bifurcation of rivers. The Negro is navigable for a distance of approximately 1,000 km from the mouth, where the large port of Manaus is located.


Negro

 

a river in Uruguay, a left tributary of the Uruguay River. The Negro rises in Brazil. It measures approximately 500 km long and drains an area of 70,600 sq km. It flows over plains. The mean flow rate is approximately 700 cu m per sec. A large reservoir, Embalse del Río Negro, and a hydroelectric power plant are in the middle course. The lower Negro is navigable to the city of Mercedes.

Negro

1 Old-fashioned or offensive
a member of any of the dark-skinned indigenous peoples of Africa and their descendants elsewhere

Negro

2 R?o
1. a river in NW South America, rising in E Colombia (as the Guain?a) and flowing east, then south as part of the border between Colombia and Venezuela, entering Brazil and continuing southeast to join the Amazon at Man?us. Length: about 2250 km (1400 miles)
2. a river in S central Argentina, formed by the confluence of the Neuqu?n and Limay Rivers and flowing east and southeast to the Atlantic. Length: about 1014 km (630 miles)
3. a river in central Uruguay, rising in S Brazil and flowing southwest into the Uruguay River. Length: about 467 km (290 miles)
References in classic literature ?
Some of them were experienced workers,--butchers, salesmen, and managers from the packers' branch stores, and a few union men who had deserted from other cities; but the vast majority were "green" Negroes from the cotton districts of the far South, and they were herded into the packing plants like sheep.
Just at this time the mayor was boasting that he had put an end to gambling and prize fighting in the city; but here a swarm of professional gamblers had leagued themselves with the police to fleece the strikebreakers; and any night, in the big open space in front of Brown's, one might see brawny Negroes stripped to the waist and pounding each other for money, while a howling throng of three or four thousand surged about, men and women, young white girls from the country rubbing elbows with big buck Negroes with daggers in their boots, while rows of woolly heads peered down from every window of the surrounding factories.
Two or three decades ago social philosophers and statisticians and well-meaning philanthropists were still talking and writing about the deportation of the Negroes, or about their settlement within some restricted area, or about their settling in all parts of the Union, or about their decline through their neglect of their children, or about their rapid multiplication till they should expel the whites from the South--of every sort of nonsense under heaven.
Presently it became apparent that some altercation had arisen among the Negroes, for a score or more of them were gathered around one who appeared to be their chief, and all were talking and gesticulating heatedly.
The young Englishman made no reply but it was evident from the set of his jaws that the Negroes would get little enjoyment out of him.
Three of the apes were already down, killed or mortally wounded, when Tarzan, realizing that the battle must eventually go against the apes unless some means could be found to break the morale of the Negroes, cast about him for some means of bringing about the desired end.
I found him by his blood staining the water; and by the help of a rope, which I slung round him, and gave the negroes to haul, they dragged him on shore, and found that it was a most curious leopard, spotted, and fine to an admirable degree; and the negroes held up their hands with admiration, to think what it was I had killed him with.
I found quickly the negroes wished to eat the flesh of this creature, so I was willing to have them take it as a favour from me; which, when I made signs to them that they might take him, they were very thankful for.
I was now furnished with roots and corn, such as it was, and water; and leaving my friendly negroes, I made forward for about eleven days more, without offering to go near the shore, till I saw the land run out a great length into the sea, at about the distance of four or five leagues before me; and the sea being very calm, I kept a large offing to make this point.
I jumped out of the cabin, and immediately saw, not only the ship, but that it was a Portuguese ship; and, as I thought, was bound to the coast of Guinea, for negroes.
I should say, perhaps, in explanation of this latter piece of description, that among the other blessings which public opinion secures to the negroes, is the common practice of violently punching out their teeth.
Sat and smoked his pipe, and said the infant negroes were-- what did he say the infant negroes were?