, Mydaidae, Apioceridae, Asilidae.
Long-tongued tanglewing files (Diptera: Nemestrinidae
) belonging to two genera pollinate rewardless Disa species, Disa draconis (L.
Remarkably long nectar-feeding mouthparts have evolved in two dipteran families - Tabanidae (horseflies) and Nemestrinidae (tanglewing flies) - in southern Africa (see illustrations in Johnson 1992).
Initial attempts at finding pollinators in 1992 were unsuccessful, but between 1993 and 1995 we managed to capture 16 individuals of the extraordinary fly Moegistorynchus longirostris Wiedemann (Nemestrinidae), of which 12 individuals had a large number of pollinaria of D.
The extraordinary long mouthparts found in members of the dipteran families Tabanidae and Nemestrinidae in South Africa probably evolved through diffuse coevolution with a variety of long-tubed, nectar-producing flowers, as was suggested for orchids and their long-tongued hawkmoth pollinators in Madagascar by Nilsson et al.
Moegistorhynchus Macquart, 1840 is an endemic genus of Nemestrinidae known only from the west coast of South Africa (Western and Northern Cape Provinces), and includes four described species (Bowden 1980; Barraclough 2006), and at least two additional new species from montane areas in the southern part of its range (Barraclough 2006).
Stuckenberg is acknowledged for providing literature and for encouraging research into the South African Nemestrinidae.
An overview of the South African tangle-veined flies (Diptera: Nemestrinidae), with an annotated key to the genera and a checklist of species.
Notes on the genus Moegistorhynchus and descriptions of a new African species of Nycterimyia (Diptera, Nemestrinidae).
Family Nemestrinidae. In: Crosskey R.W., ed., Catalogue of the Diptera of the Afrotropical Region.