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an idealistic school of Chinese philosophy, which evolved mainly during the Sung dynasty (960–1279).

Neo-Confucianism took shape during Confucianism’s struggle with Buddhism and Taoism; as a result, neo-Confucianism adopted elements from both Buddhism and Taoism. Han Yü, a writer and philosopher of the eighth and ninth centuries, and Li Ao, a student of Han Yü, may be considered precursors of neo-Confucianism. They were concerned with the revival and further development of Confucianism for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Taoist and Buddhist teachings in China.

Unlike early Confucianism, with its predominantly ethical and political conceptions, questions of ontology, natural philosophy, and cosmogony occupied an important place in neo-Confucianism. One of the founders of neo-Confucianism, the 11th-century thinker Chou Tun-i, advanced the concept of the Great Ultimate (t’ai chi) as the fundamental principle of the world. The world of nature and the world of ethical relations as a single system, as two aspects of a single whole, is subordinated to this absolute Great Ultimate. The teachings of Chou Tun-i were developed by Chang Tsai and the brothers Ch’eng Hao and Ch’eng I.

A major Sung scholar of the 12th century, Chu Hsi, a commentator, historian, and dualist philosopher, was the most prominent representative of neo-Confucianism. He systematized the principal philosophical ideas of his predecessors. Chu Hsi believed that the Great Ultimate contained two principles: the ideal, incorporeal li and the material ch’i. He considered the li as preceding and dominating all things but existing only with the ch Y. Wang Yang-ming, a philosopher of the late 15th and early 16th centuries, is regarded as the most prominent representative of the subjective idealist trend in neo-Confucianism. He expanded Confucius’ and Mencius’ idea about the innateness of knowledge with the assertion that the world is a product of consciousness.

Neo-Confucianism supported ancient Confucianism’s reactionary conception of the immutability of existing social orders and the natural practice of dividing people into higher and lower strata: “noble men” and “petty people.” The Neo-Confucianists reexamined the interpretation of the basic code of Confucianist canonical literature, the Wu Ching (Five Classics). At the suggestion of Chu Hsi, the Ssu shu (Four Books) was proclaimed the new Confucianist canon.

In the late 13th and early 14th centuries, Neo-Confucianism became an official ideology. It retained its dominant position in the philosophical and sociopolitical thought of China until the early 20th century. It greatly influenced philosophy in Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.


References in periodicals archive ?
The summit, which features keynote speeches and high-level dialogues, will be led by more than 20 prominent scholars of Chinese and Western cultures, scholars of East Asia's Neo-Confucianism as well as Western sinologists who will discuss the history of the fusing of Chinese and Western cultures, the historical evolution and significance of the Silk Road, how modern companies can embrace the new humanistic approach to business culture and how to preserve the essence of Chinese and Oriental traditional cultures against the backdrop of globalization.
Her translations are prefaced with a brief introduction to Neo-Confucianism and the Ming Dynasty and a biography of Wu, and followed by a sensitive reading of what his efforts to reach sagehood entailed and a study of his style as a teacher of the Way.
He is is the author of over 30 books and more than 500 articles on Asian and Western philosophy, among them A New Treatise on Neo-Confucianism, On New Affairs, Explanation of the New World, A New Treatise on the Nature of Man, The Spirit of Chinese Philosophy and On the Methodology of Metaphysics.
As the only orthodox ideology sponsored by the state during the Ming, the Neo-Confucianism, or the Learning of the Way (daoxue) that arose in the Song dynasty era (960-1276) undoubtedly constituted a crucial part of the intellectual contexts within which the rhetoric of public opinion rose in the late-Ming.
To make sense of the Joseon dynasty, which spans 518 years and 27 kings--and a people that reconciles the seemingly contradictory philosophies of Neo-Confucianism and Buddhism, with elements of early shamanism and later Christianity--the show is not chronological but arranged in five themes: the king and his court, social hierarchies, ritual in ancestral worship, Buddhism under Confucian rule, and Korea's encounter with the West at the end of the 19th century.
of California Irvine) investigates shi poetry, Neo-Confucianism, and the literary discourse that established new patterns for Chinese society for the next six centuries.
On the other hand, although recognized by the Ming court as one of the four models that other Confucians should emulate, Xue has been generally overlooked in the post-Ming narrative of Neo-Confucianism.
Feng, 1899-1977), one of the representatives of contemporary neo-Confucianism, explored the present significance of Chinese philosophy, he focused on this concept and explained it in terms of "creative creativity," a concept borrowed from process philosophy.
to Neo-Confucianism propounded by Zhu Xi (1130-1200) to the living
11) For instance, the early missionaries' pioneering work in modern education was in tune with Confucianism's profound reverence for learning, and the missionaries' strict moral teaching was seen as consistent with the austere moral code of Neo-Confucianism.
Systems adapted from Chinese Neo-Confucianism and the requirements of indigenous forms of ancestor worship emphasise the primacy of the past in determining the propriety and prosperity of the present.
So he holds out hope for a Hindu model of politics as embodied in Gandi's Hind Swaraj (173-82), neo-Confucianism (181-2), along with a new humanism engendered in Catholic Social Teaching (153-4) and even a renewed Muslim politics (Chapter 9).