This re-evaluation concerns especially Italy but also, at an intertextual level, the numerous foreign influences on Italian authors that occurred between the 19th and 20th centuries--from the revisitations of Classicism after the Risorgimento and under Fascism, to Neo-Idealism
, post-war pessimism and existentialism.
Italian neo-Idealism culminated in Croce's and Gentile's works, but many other great Italian philosophers contributed to the birth of Italian Idealism - Rosmini, Gioberti, and Vico, for instance.
Furthermore, the main representatives of Italian neo-Idealism, that is to say Croce and Gentile, were affected by ideological-political factors: liberal in the case of the former and Fascist in the latter.
Italian philosophy in the first half of the 20th century thus suffered from the dominance of neo-Idealism, a closed-minded philosophy that was never hospitable to other philosophical currents.
In fact, before Italian neo-Idealism exploded, the main philosophical currents were positivism (with Roberto Ardigo, Aristide Gabelli, etc.) and liberal-catholic spiritualism (with Rosmini and Gioberti).