De Stijl

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Stijl, de

(də stīl) [Du.,=the style], Dutch nonfigurative art movement, also called neoplasticism. In 1917 a group of artists, architects, and poets was organized under the name de Stijl, and a journal of the same name was initiated. The leaders of the movement were the artists Theo van DoesburgDoesburg, Theo van
, 1883–1931, Dutch painter, teacher, and writer. Together with Mondrian he founded the magazine De Stijl and successfully proselytized in Europe for the new aesthetic of abstraction, simplicity, clarity, and harmony.
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 and Piet MondrianMondrian, Piet
, 1872–1944, Dutch painter. He studied at the academy in Amsterdam and passed through an early naturalistic phase. In 1910 he went to Paris, where the influence of cubism stimulated the development of his geometric, nonobjective style, which he called
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. They advocated a purification of art, eliminating subject matter in favor of vertical and horizontal elements, and the use of primary colors and noncolors. Their austerity of expression influenced architects, principally J. J. P. OudOud, Jacobus Johannes Pieter
, 1890–1963, Dutch architect. Oud's interest in abstract painting led him to conceive of buildings composed in terms of pure planes. With several painters, including Mondrian and Theo van Doesburg, he became associated with the influential
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 and Gerrit RietveldRietveld, Gerrit Thomas
, 1888–1965, Dutch architect and furniture designer. At first a cabinetmaker, Rietveld created (c.1917) a chair that was an important contribution to modern furniture design.
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. The movement lasted until 1931; in architecture a few de Stijl principles are still applied.

Bibliography

See study by H. L. C. Jaffé (1968).

De Stijl

Term meaning “The Style,” derived from the name of a group of Dutch artists and the journal founded by the painter Theo van Doesberg in 1917; other members of the group included Piet Mondrian, Reitveld, and Oud. It was influenced by Cubism, and proposed an abstracted expression divorced from nature; instead, advocating straight lines, pure planes, right angles, and primary colors. It had a profound influence on the Bauhaus movement.

De Stijl

 

an avant-garde group of Dutch architects and artists that was founded in Leiden in 1917 around the journal De Stijl (1917–28). The group disbanded in 1931.

The De Stijl artists advanced neoplasticism, that is, the rejection of the representational, social, and cognitive tasks of art and the turning to pure forms, generalized to the maximum degree. In painting the style led to a geometric form of abstract art, as seen in the works of P. Mondrian, T. van Doesburg (the group’s organizer and theorist), and B. van der Leck. The architectural style of De Stijl was marked by strict mathematical measurements and ascetically precise spatial composition; these qualities especially distinguish the designs of van Doesburg, J. J. P. Oud, and G. Rietveld. De Stijl architecture to some extent influenced the development of functionalism.

REFERENCES

Modernizm (2nd ed.). Moscow, 1973. Pages 130–38.
Jaffé, H. L. C. De Stijl, 1917–1931. The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art. Amsterdam, 1956.

de Stijl

An architectural movement from about 1917 to 1931, which originated in The Netherlands, that placed emphasis on functionalism, rationalism, and current methods of construction, in contrast to historical precedent and traditional methods of construction. This movement had a significant influence on the development of Modern architecture.
References in periodicals archive ?
However, Mondrian himself had, in fact, already suggested the possibility of Neoplastic literature in his pamphlet, Neo-Plasticism, after having studied the literary works of Futurism and Dada (The New Art 132).
By literally drawing her novel to a close with an image, Benedetta seems to suggest a new direction for literature, one which Mondrian first asserted in Neo-Plasticism when he proposed a wordless literature.
A Dutch artist whose work is rooted in Neo-Plasticism might be suspected of seeking facile identification with an artistic commonplace, a sort of visiting card for a foreign audience.
For the cover of the catalogue accompanying his exhibition "Cubism and Abstract Art," Barr employed a tangle of swooping arrows--his own brand of "spaghetti and meatballs"--to depict the rapid explosion of overlapping and occasionally competing avant-gardes (Cubism, Futurism, Neo-Plasticism, etc.
Piet Mondrian, "The Manifestation of Neo-Plasticism in Music and the Italian Futurists' Bruiteurs" (1921), in The New Art, the New Life: The Collected Writings of Piet Mondrian, ed.
Moving from the "origins" of Malevich (and Lyubov Popova and Rozanova) to the endpoints of Richter and Whiteread, Fer's narrative encompasses the history of twentieth-century avant-garde art: ranging from century's beginning to century's end, from Greenbergian Modernism to that which comes after it, from Suprematism, Neo-Plasticism, Surrealism, Abstract Expressionism, Eccentric Abstraction and Minimalism, and on to our own moment, moving between Europe and the United States, painting, collage and sculpture, artists male and female, she covers the canon of abstraction from end to end, center to center, movement to movement, across media and gender: Malevich, Mondrian, Arp, Miro, Pollock, Hesse, Judd, Richter, and Whiteread.
That some of Schapiro's ideas on Mondrian's work were first formulated while the painter was still alive and much in need of recognition helps understand the essay's oddly apologetic strategy: in order to convince a reluctant audience that Mondrian's Neo-Plasticism did not consist of mere decorative patterns, Schapiro endeavors "to show [the] continuity" of its "pure relations" with "structures of representation in the preceding art" -- to show, in other words that there is nothing fundamentally new or frightening in his work; that between Degas' framing device and Mondrian's use of the diamond format, or between Pissarro's frenetic views of Parisian boulevards and Broadway Boogie Woogie's optical dazzle, there is only a difference of degree, not of nature.
That some of Schapiro's ideas on Mondrian's work were first formulated while the painter was still alive and much in need of recognition helps understand the essay's oddly apologetic strategy: in order to convince a reluctant audience that Mondrian's Neo-Plasticism did not consist of mere decorative patterns, Schapiro endeavors "to show [the] continuity" of its "pure relations" with "structures of representation in the preceding art" - to show, in other words, that there is nothing fundamentally new or frightening in his work; that between Degas' framing device and Mondrian's use of the diamond format, or between Pissarro's frenetic views of Parisian boulevards and Broadway Boogie Woogie's optical dazzle, there is only a difference of degree, not of nature.