the general term for both fossil and extant humans of the modern type, Homo sapiens. The main anthropological features that distinguish the Neoanthropinae from the Paleoanthropinae and the Archanthropinae are a capacious, high-crowned skull; a vertically inclined forehead; the absence of a brow ridge; and a well-developed protuberence of the chin.
The fossil Neoanthropinae had a slightly more massive skeleton than contemporary humans. Ancient Neoanthropinae created a rich late Paleolithic culture; they left behind dwellings, sewn clothing, polychromatic cave paintings, sculptures and engravings in bone and horn, and various types of implements made of stone, bone, and horn.
The oldest known remains of Neoanthropine bones, found on the island of Kalimantan, are 39,000 years old according to estimates arrived at by radiocarbon dating techniques, but it is most probable that the Neoanthropinae arose 60,000 to 70,000 years ago. Two theories exist regarding the origin of the Neoanthropinae—polycentrism and monocentrism. More widely accepted is the theory of broad monocentrism, according to which the Neoanthropinae arose from progressive forms of the Paleoanthropinae, who dwelt in the territory of Middle and Southwest Asia and Northeast Africa.
REFERENCESRoginskii, Ia. Ia., and M. G. Levin. Antropologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1963.
Nesturkh, M. F. Proiskhozhdenie cheloveka, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1970.
V. P. IAKIMOV