Neologisms


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Neologisms

 

new words or expressions, the newness and unfamiliarity of which are clearly felt by speakers of a given language.

Neologisms are divided into two categories: (1) those that gain wide acceptance in a language, including words that have been recently created from the word-stock of a given language and words that have been recently borrowed from other languages, and (2) those individual-stylistic neologisms coined by a given author.

Neologisms of the first category arise from the need to find new words for new phenomena, for example, lavsan (the Soviet equivalent of Dacron); programmirovanie, “programming”; and NEP, “new economic policy.” Once these words are completely assimilated by the language, they cease to be neologisms, for example, utopia (Sir Thomas More, 16th century) and robot (K. Capek, 20th century).

Neologisms of the second category—individual-stylistic, occasional neologisms—are created by writers in order to achieve certain artistic effects. They are rarely used out of context and do not gain wide currency.

Neologisms are created in a language according to the productive morphological means of the language. In their form, neologisms are similar to words already existing in a language, for example, the Russian zelenokudryi (N. V. Gogol) and gromad’e, molotkastyi (V. V. Mayakovsky).

REFERENCE

Reformatskii, A. A. Vvedenie v iazykovedenie, 4th ed. Moscow, 1967. Pages 481–82.

L. M. BASH

References in periodicals archive ?
Step 1: Is it a neologism, and if so, how well accepted is it?
But according to Ivan Ivanov's previous publications (Ivanov 2003 : 164-190; 2009 : 90-158) most Mari neologisms from the 1920s have been created in three ways: (a) creating compounds, which generally consist of two words and can be divided into subordinate compounds, e.g.
Ezekiel's use of seven hapax legomena and numerous neologisms therein serves to highlight the magnitude of the catastrophe that awaited Tyre on the eve of its anticipated destruction by Babylon.
The semantic novelty status of each new term was checked by reference to the dictionaries of neologisms of the Romanian language (MDN, DCR3).
on a finite level, [existing] as a reality essence (a metareality) involving a persuasive consciousness (information expressed through meaning as metaconsciousness) and order (ordropy [another neologism, M.R--"ordropy" is defined as the opposite of "entropy"]) with "metalife" (all encompassing life in the infinite: potential life--"polife")--which then manifests as physical life in the finite when linked with the correct current physiology.
This volume contains thirteen essays on neologisms in the general language and in the specialized technolects of early modern Spain.
Two earlier goes at neologisms (06-16; 07-162) had different titles, but since I have two more in waiting I've rechristened those first two retroactively as Funny Words 1 and 2.
The terms of restricted use consist of archaisms falling out of use and therefore are little used as well as neologisms which are becoming widely accepted (Kiss 2005: 39).
Even more grating is the increase in marketing speak, littered with buzzwords and ludicrous neologisms."
This tendency to create "neologisms" is especially common in the military profession.
They could then (as my epigraph puts it) "utter" the neologisms again--a verb that meant "to sell" and "to circulate as legal coinage," (6) as well as "to speak"; having bought words from playwrights, audiences would hope to "retail" them profitably elsewhere.
Among the other innovative features are revised etymologies by Alberto Nocentini and Alessandro Parenti, in which the date or century of first attestations was added, (6) neologisms drawn especially from the scientific sector compiled by Beatrice Manetti and Silvia Rati, with terms such as iPod, sudoku, PACS, election day, etc., as well as sematic innovations.