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new words or expressions, the newness and unfamiliarity of which are clearly felt by speakers of a given language.

Neologisms are divided into two categories: (1) those that gain wide acceptance in a language, including words that have been recently created from the word-stock of a given language and words that have been recently borrowed from other languages, and (2) those individual-stylistic neologisms coined by a given author.

Neologisms of the first category arise from the need to find new words for new phenomena, for example, lavsan (the Soviet equivalent of Dacron); programmirovanie, “programming”; and NEP, “new economic policy.” Once these words are completely assimilated by the language, they cease to be neologisms, for example, utopia (Sir Thomas More, 16th century) and robot (K. Capek, 20th century).

Neologisms of the second category—individual-stylistic, occasional neologisms—are created by writers in order to achieve certain artistic effects. They are rarely used out of context and do not gain wide currency.

Neologisms are created in a language according to the productive morphological means of the language. In their form, neologisms are similar to words already existing in a language, for example, the Russian zelenokudryi (N. V. Gogol) and gromad’e, molotkastyi (V. V. Mayakovsky).


Reformatskii, A. A. Vvedenie v iazykovedenie, 4th ed. Moscow, 1967. Pages 481–82.


References in periodicals archive ?
But according to Ivan Ivanov's previous publications (Ivanov 2003 : 164-190; 2009 : 90-158) most Mari neologisms from the 1920s have been created in three ways: (a) creating compounds, which generally consist of two words and can be divided into subordinate compounds, e.
Ezekiel's use of seven hapax legomena and numerous neologisms therein serves to highlight the magnitude of the catastrophe that awaited Tyre on the eve of its anticipated destruction by Babylon.
Gutierrez Rodilla, "La antineologia de la medicina renacentista en castellano: los textos instructivos y de divulgacion" (41-56), demonstrates that medical texts written for the lower ranks of medical practitioners or the non-specialist reader tended to avoid, insofar as possible, the use of Latin and Greek technical neologisms in favor of the terminology employed in everyday speech.
Two earlier goes at neologisms (06-16; 07-162) had different titles, but since I have two more in waiting I've rechristened those first two retroactively as Funny Words 1 and 2.
The terms of restricted use consist of archaisms falling out of use and therefore are little used as well as neologisms which are becoming widely accepted (Kiss 2005: 39).
27) "I marvaile" remarked another Elizabethan defender of neologisms, "how our english tongue hath cracke[d] it[s] credite, that it may not borrow of the Latine" (28) And George Chapman asserted that, "if my country language were an useurer, or a man of this age, speaking it, he would thanke mee for enriching him.
With Italian literature no longer the primary model for Standard use, innovations derive mostly from media sources, with neologisms being created daily.
Beginning in the seventeenth century, it brings us right up to date with a discussion of modern methods of study and analysis, including corpora and information technology and a plea to recognize neologisms and their study as a systematic scholarly discipline.
Thus all languages are subject to the acceptance or creation of neologisms because of the social and technological development which brings along new phenomena to which new words are necessarily linked.
Though some of the writing is turgid because of its technical jargon, on the whole the collection is free of post-modernist neologisms.
Focusing on the real-world language of practice, Segen (histopathology, Chase Farm Hospital, Enfield, UK) provides comprehensive definitions of terminology, jargon, acronyms, and neologisms in clear, simple language.
The word "photography" is just such a neologism itself, and its history is rife with further neologisms.