Kristensen (1968) considers the general morphology of the head of Neopseustidae to show a mixture of primitive and specialized features.
Whereas the proboscis of all other adult Lepidoptera Glossata is formed by a sucking tube with a single food canal, that of Neopseustidae has two independent sucking tubes (Fig.
andesae are frequent in the lower Lepidoptera and with the aporous sensilla chaetica, they are the only sensilla on the proboscis of Neopseustidae that have been identified by previous authors (Kristensen & Nielsen, 1981; Krenn & Kristensen, 2000).
In any case, the presence or absence of sensilla in the food canals cannot be proved because the latter have a very small diameter in Neopseustidae and it seems impossible to separate the two edges of the galeae.
culeou could be the food plant for the South American Neopseustidae (Davis & Nielsen, 1980).
In the Neopseustidae, the chaetosemata have been referred to as Eltringham's organ by Kristensen (1968) and Mutuura (1971).
The aporous bifurcate sensilla chaetica could constitute an autapomorphy for the Neopseustidae but would need to be described further in other species of that family.
It would be interesting to study the existence of sensilla styloconica in the families intermediary between the Neopseustidae and the Incurvarioidea.
The presence of sensilla styloconica on the proboscis is therefore a characteristic of the Neopseustidae to be added to the previously mentioned autapomorphies such as the double-tube configuration of the proboscis (Kristensen & Nielsen, 1981) and the presence of antennal composite sensilla basiconica with concentrated pores (Faucheux, 2005 a, b; submitted).
The absence of this sensory organ has been hitherto considered as an autapomorphy of Neopseustidae (Davis, 1975).
These unique characteristics are to be added to those already described for the Neopseustidae such as the double-tube configuration of the proboscis and the composite and polymorphic multiporous sensilla basiconica on the antennae (Faucheux et al.
Systematics and zoogeography of the family Neopseustidae with the proposal of a new superfamily (Lepidoptera: Neopseustoidea).