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Formation of renal calculi.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a disease of man and animals characterized by the formation in the renal pelves or their calyxes of stones (calculi) consisting of substances from the urine. Disturbance of the biochemical state of the urine causes sedimentation of crystals and amorphous salts, which combine with an organic base consisting of blood clot, fibrin, cellular detritus, and bacteria to form stones. Stones may occur in one or both kidneys, and may be multiple or solitary; they may be small in size or in the form of a large coralline mass.

Nephrolithiasis occurs in men and women with equal frequency and is less common in children. The incidence of the disease varies considerably from country to country and within a country. In the USSR, it is more prevalent in Middle Asia, the Northern Caucasus, and Transcaucasia and in the basins of the Volga, Kama, Don, and other rivers. One cause of nephrolithiasis is suppurative inflammation, especially in the form of pyelonephritis. Less commonly, it is caused by diseases of the internal secretions of the glands, particularly hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands. Life-style, diet, soil, and drinking water are major factors.

Nephrolithiasis is manifested by dull pain in the lumbar region or by renal colic, which results from obstruction of a pelvis or ureter by a stone. Blood may appear in the urine at the end of an attack or soon after. If the disease is complicated by an infection of the urinary tract, the urine becomes cloudy and purulent. Between attacks of colic the patient may feel dull pain in the region of the corresponding kidney. The pain usually intensifies when the patient moves and subsides during rest.

The disease is asymptomatic in 15 percent of patients. Roent-genographic examination, for example, survey radiography or urography, is important for diagnosis. In the case of uric acid stones and urate stones, the characteristic shadow on the film may be absent, and such stones are diagnosed by more complex methods. Small stones entering the ureter from a pelvis often pass spontaneously either after the ingestion of a large quantity of fluid or as a result of drugs prescribed by a physician. Large stones cannot pass from the kidney. Stones that cause frequent attacks of renal colic or secondary pyelonephritis with frequent exacerbation must be surgically removed, as well as large stones accompanied by stenosis of the ureter or by hydronephrosis. Special preparations, called dissolvents, have some effect on urate stones.

Nephrolithiasis is prevented by a diet that takes into account the patient’s susceptibility to the disease, by the use of diuretics, and by control of urinary infection.


Vorobtsov, V. I. “Kamni pochek i mochetochnikov.” In Rukovodstvopo klinicheskoi urologii. Edited by A. Ia. Pytel’. Moscow, 1969.
Pytel’, A. Ia. “Pochechnokamennaia bolezn’: Geograficheskaia patologiia.” In Ezhegodnik BME. vol. 2. Moscow, 1969. Pages 777–83.
Hienzsch, E., and H.-J. Schneider, eds. Der Harustein. Jena, 1973.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nevertheless, given the high prevalence of stone diseases in Taiwan, we hope our research offers insight into the study of nephrolithiasis in AS subgroup.
Kohri, "Preventive effects of green tea on renal stone formation and the role of oxidative stress in nephrolithiasis," Journal of Urology, vol.
Direct and indirect costs of nephrolithiasis in an employed population: opportunity for disease management Kidney Int 2005;68:1808-14.
The shapes of the overall cumulative exposure-response and lag response relationships between temperature and nephrolithiasis using quadratic splines were similar to the natural cubic splines and did not reveal any nonlinear relationships at temperature range limits.
In this article, a male patient who was found have nephrolithiasis on ultrasonography (USG) performed because of urinary tract infection and was diagnosed with Dent's disease was presented to emphasize the importance of considering Dent's disease which is a rare disease in the differential diagnosis of nephrolithiasis.
While several metabolic disorders, such as primary hyperparathyroidism, hereditary cystinuria, and primary hyperoxaluria are known to cause nephrolithiasis, most stones are idiopathic in nature (3,8).
+ 3954C > T) and (IL1RN) in pediatric nephrolithiasis," Clinica Chimica Acta, vol.
Kidney stones, otherwise known as renal lithiasis, nephrolithiasis, refer to hard deposits made of minerals and salts that accumulate across the inner lining of kidneys.
Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, asymmetry in GFR/parenchymal abnormalities, cross match positivity/DSA with MFI value higher than 5000, obesity and nephrolithiasis were the most frequent causes for rejection, respectively.
High prevalence of nephrolithiasis in males may also be due to hormonal factors, because androgens appear to increase urinary oxalate excretion and kidney calcium oxalate deposition.6 In the present study most of the patients having stones were obese or overweight (70.91%).
The commonest etiologies of CKD were nephrolithiasis and posterior urethral valves (19.6% each), followed by reflux nephropathy (15.2%) and glomerulopathies (10.9%).