Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Acronyms, Wikipedia.


Formation of renal calculi.



a disease of man and animals characterized by the formation in the renal pelves or their calyxes of stones (calculi) consisting of substances from the urine. Disturbance of the biochemical state of the urine causes sedimentation of crystals and amorphous salts, which combine with an organic base consisting of blood clot, fibrin, cellular detritus, and bacteria to form stones. Stones may occur in one or both kidneys, and may be multiple or solitary; they may be small in size or in the form of a large coralline mass.

Nephrolithiasis occurs in men and women with equal frequency and is less common in children. The incidence of the disease varies considerably from country to country and within a country. In the USSR, it is more prevalent in Middle Asia, the Northern Caucasus, and Transcaucasia and in the basins of the Volga, Kama, Don, and other rivers. One cause of nephrolithiasis is suppurative inflammation, especially in the form of pyelonephritis. Less commonly, it is caused by diseases of the internal secretions of the glands, particularly hyperfunction of the parathyroid glands. Life-style, diet, soil, and drinking water are major factors.

Nephrolithiasis is manifested by dull pain in the lumbar region or by renal colic, which results from obstruction of a pelvis or ureter by a stone. Blood may appear in the urine at the end of an attack or soon after. If the disease is complicated by an infection of the urinary tract, the urine becomes cloudy and purulent. Between attacks of colic the patient may feel dull pain in the region of the corresponding kidney. The pain usually intensifies when the patient moves and subsides during rest.

The disease is asymptomatic in 15 percent of patients. Roent-genographic examination, for example, survey radiography or urography, is important for diagnosis. In the case of uric acid stones and urate stones, the characteristic shadow on the film may be absent, and such stones are diagnosed by more complex methods. Small stones entering the ureter from a pelvis often pass spontaneously either after the ingestion of a large quantity of fluid or as a result of drugs prescribed by a physician. Large stones cannot pass from the kidney. Stones that cause frequent attacks of renal colic or secondary pyelonephritis with frequent exacerbation must be surgically removed, as well as large stones accompanied by stenosis of the ureter or by hydronephrosis. Special preparations, called dissolvents, have some effect on urate stones.

Nephrolithiasis is prevented by a diet that takes into account the patient’s susceptibility to the disease, by the use of diuretics, and by control of urinary infection.


Vorobtsov, V. I. “Kamni pochek i mochetochnikov.” In Rukovodstvopo klinicheskoi urologii. Edited by A. Ia. Pytel’. Moscow, 1969.
Pytel’, A. Ia. “Pochechnokamennaia bolezn’: Geograficheskaia patologiia.” In Ezhegodnik BME. vol. 2. Moscow, 1969. Pages 777–83.
Hienzsch, E., and H.-J. Schneider, eds. Der Harustein. Jena, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
Analysis of the data strongly suggested the incidence of nephrolithiasis in marathon runners was significantly greater than that of their matched population.
Correspondence between stone composition and urine supersaturation in nephrolithiasis.
The fact that the renal insufficiency was related with nephrolithiasis, a reason other than amyloidosis might explain the ineffectiveness of the therapy on renal functions in this patient.
Kidney stone formation or nephrolithiasis is a complex process that results from a succession of several physico-chemical events including supersaturation, nucleation, growth, aggregation, and retention within the kidneys (Worcester and Coe 2008).
8%) subjects, hepatosteatosis in 8 patients, hepatosteatosis with hepatomegaly in 5 patients, adrenal hyperplasia in 2, nephrolithiasis in 2, and hepatomegaly alone in 1 patient.
We present the case of a 52-year-old man whose condition had an aggressive clinical course that resulted in the development of pseudomyxoma peritonei after he presented at nephrectomy with borderline mucinous neoplasm arising in a background of extensive mucinous metaplasia of the pelvicalyceal urothelium secondary to chronic nephrolithiasis.
Some variability has been demonstrated in the development of vitamin C-associated oxaluria and/or nephrolithiasis but nonetheless caution has been advised in the use of high-dose supplementation or therapy (16,17).
The joint EAU/AUA Nephrolithiasis Panel was convened in 2003 to incorporate the significant body of research that has become available over the past decade into the document, including the use of shockwave lithotripsy (SWL), ureteroscopy (URS) and other treatments, e.
Urine stone risk factors in nephrolithiasis patients with and without bowel disease.
Healthy patients that are considering a high-protein diet should be advised about the potentially deleterious effects: chronic glomerular hyperfiltration and hyperemia, increased proteinuria, and an elevated risk for nephrolithiasis, Dr.
in addition, an up-regulation of Umod has been observed in the progression of nephrolithiasis (Katsuma et al.
Kidney stones disease - also known as Renal Lithiasis, Urolithiasis or Nephrolithiasis - is one of the most painful urological conditions afflicting the urinary tract, and also one of the most common.