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see urinary systemurinary system,
group of organs of the body concerned with excretion of urine, that is, water and the waste products of metabolism. In humans, the kidneys are two small organs situated near the vertebral column at the small of the back, the left lying somewhat higher than the
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the basic structural and functional unit of the kidneys in vertebrate animals and man. A distinction is made between aglomerular and glomerular nephrons. Aglomerular nephrons are found in certain fishes and contain cells of a single type; glomerular nephrons, found in all other vertebrates and in man, contain the Malpighian bodies and Bowman’s capsules. The renal tubules extend from Bowman’s capsules.

The cells of glomerular nephrons are highly specialized to perform the functions required in the formation of urine—filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. In embryos the nephron also includes the nephrostomes, which are the ciliated infundibuli of the tubules. The nephrostomes open into the body cavity.


The functional unit of a kidney, consisting of the glomerulus with its capsule and attached uriniferous tubule.
References in periodicals archive ?
Each kidney contains about 1 million nephrons, each of which can form urine; therefore, in most cases it is not necessary to discuss the entire kidney but simply the activities of a single nephron to explain the organ's function.
Reduced nephron endowment has been proposed as playing a determinant role [10-13].
Pre-renal causes generally arise due to hypoperfusion of the nephrons due to shock, heart failure, hypotension, dehydration, hypovolvaemia or renal arterial stenosis, which all decrease renal blood flow and may trigger renal failure.
Nephron sparing surgery for appropriately selected renal cell carcinoma between 4 and 7 cm results in outcome similar to radical nephrectomy.
The fundamental structural unit of the kidney is the nephron. These high-pressure filtering mechanisms govern the removal of waste products and toxins, control blood pressure and volume, and regulate levels of electrolytes and metabolites in the blood.
Development of the human kidney as shown by microdissection, IV: development of tubular portions of nephrons. Arch Pathol.
Thus, the nephrons have the responsibility of handling this large volume of filtrate and separating that which must be conserved and that which needs to be excreted.
Damage to the nephrons from unused sugar in the blood is called diabetic nephropathy.
For the first time, researchers discovered that in the nephrons, the functional units of the kidneys, had coated a specialized part of cells called brush borders, which help reabsorb and process proteins.
Objective: Kidney non-endocrine functions are primarily performed by millions of individual integral units called nephrons. Although the adults of simple vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles) have the ability to regenerate entire nephrons by a process called nephron neogenesis , this capacity is absent in birds and mammals.
When the body suffers a crushing injury, however, iron-containing heme proteins like myoglobin spill out of crushed tissue into the bloodstream, get caught in the blood-filtering nephrons in the kidney and die, releasing their iron.
The lesions were "focal," affecting some nephrons and sparing others, and "segmented," scarring one part of the nephron.2 The picture of FSGS on biopsies originally caused it to be referred to as the "flea bitten" kidney.