Nephrosclerosis


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Related to Nephrosclerosis: malignant nephrosclerosis

nephrosclerosis

[¦nef·rō·sklə′rō·səs]
(medicine)
Sclerosis of the renal arteries and arterioles.

Nephrosclerosis

 

a condition of kidneys arising during the final stage of hypertensive disease and accompanied by a proliferation of connective tissue and the onset of uremia. Nephrosclerosis arises less frequently in such diseases as atherosclerosis of the principal vessels of the kidneys, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of the kidneys, diffuse glomerulonephritis, and nephrolithiasis.

When occurring in conjunction with hypertension, nephrosclerosis is accompanied by hyalinosis and necrosis of the small arteries of the kidneys. In pronounced cases of nephrosclerosis, the kidneys become smaller and acquire a granular surface. Occasionally, the surface appears nodular. In cases of malignant hypertension, early diagnosis of nephrosclerosis is possible only through a biopsy of the kidney; tests of kidney function and X-ray and radioisotopic tracer analyses are also carried out.

Treatment involves a salt-free diet, agents that decrease arterial pressure, and antibacterial measures in cases complicated by infection. Surgical treatment is recommended in some instances of renal injury.

REFERENCES

Miasnikov, A. L. Gipertonicheskaia bolezn’i ateroskleroz. Moscow, 1965.
Osnovy nefrologii, vol. 2. Edited by E. M. Tareev. Moscow, 1972.
Pochki. Edited by F. K. Mostofi and D. E. Smith. Moscow, 1972. (Translated from English.)

N. R. PALEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
Molecular factors of angiogenesis in renal tissue of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis: association with nephrosclerosis and anemia.
(2002) Prostacyclin-deficient mice develop ischemic renal disorders, including nephrosclerosis and renal infarction.
The underlying kidney diseases in the CKD group were as follows: chronic glomerulonephritis confirmed by kidney biopsy (n = 16; 18.4%), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n = 3; 3.5%), polycystic kidney disease (n = 28; 32.2%), gouty nephropathy (n = 5; 5.7%), nephrolithiasis (n = 23; 26.4%), and loss of one kidney due to injury (n = 1,1.1%).
She has advanced kidney dysfunction secondary to hypertensive nephrosclerosis. She has chronic kidney disease (CKD) Stage 4 not related to diabetes.
The causes of renal failure were diabetic nephropathy (n = 68), chronic glomerulonephritis (n = 30), polycystic kidney disease (n = 3), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (n =15), or unknown (n = 20).
The causes of ESRD were diabetic nephropathy (32 patients), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (14 patients), chronic glomerulonephritis (7 patients), and others (7 patients).
In China, IgA nephropathy was the most frequently biopsy finding seen in all NDRD patients, followed by membranous nephropathy, mesangial proliferative glomerulonephritis, hypertensive nephrosclerosis, renal damage, minimal-change disease, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and crescentic glomerulonephritis [30].
Similarly, another previous study reported that cytochrome C is released from mitochondria to the cytosol during apoptotic events such as hypertensive nephrosclerosis in rats [32].
A 91-year-old woman with stage 5 chronic kidney disease possibly due to hypertensive nephrosclerosis or chronic glomerulonephritis was admitted to the Department of Nephrology of our hospital because of a 2-week history of dyspnea.
We had one male patient (53 years old) diagnosed with ESRD secondary to hypertensive nephrosclerosis and was on hemodialysis three times/week for the 7 years prior to his LGGCP.
The other 2341 cases were non-DN diseases, including chronic glomerulonephritis (58.9% [1379/2341]), hypertensive nephrosclerosis (22.1% [518/2341]), polycystic kidney (4.7% [111/2341]), obstructive nephropathy (2.4% [56/2341]), drug-induced renal damage (1.8% [41/2341]), gout nephropathy (1.4% [33/2341]), system lupus erythematosus (1.1% [26/2341]), chronic pyelonephritis (0.6% [15/2341]), Henoch–Schonlein purpura nephritis (0.4% [9/2341]), and the others (6.5% [153/2341]).
The necropsy revealed the presence of a cerebral and lung edema, coronary arteries atherosclerosis and subepicardic ischemic myocardial fibrosis, nephrosclerosis, liver steatosis and incipient pancreatic sclerosis.