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a condition of kidneys arising during the final stage of hypertensive disease and accompanied by a proliferation of connective tissue and the onset of uremia. Nephrosclerosis arises less frequently in such diseases as atherosclerosis of the principal vessels of the kidneys, pyelonephritis, tuberculosis of the kidneys, diffuse glomerulonephritis, and nephrolithiasis.
When occurring in conjunction with hypertension, nephrosclerosis is accompanied by hyalinosis and necrosis of the small arteries of the kidneys. In pronounced cases of nephrosclerosis, the kidneys become smaller and acquire a granular surface. Occasionally, the surface appears nodular. In cases of malignant hypertension, early diagnosis of nephrosclerosis is possible only through a biopsy of the kidney; tests of kidney function and X-ray and radioisotopic tracer analyses are also carried out.
Treatment involves a salt-free diet, agents that decrease arterial pressure, and antibacterial measures in cases complicated by infection. Surgical treatment is recommended in some instances of renal injury.
REFERENCESMiasnikov, A. L. Gipertonicheskaia bolezn’i ateroskleroz. Moscow, 1965.
Osnovy nefrologii, vol. 2. Edited by E. M. Tareev. Moscow, 1972.
Pochki. Edited by F. K. Mostofi and D. E. Smith. Moscow, 1972. (Translated from English.)
N. R. PALEEV