Nerchinsk


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Nerchinsk

(nyĕr`chĭnsk), city, SE Siberian Russia. Founded in 1654, the city was a Russian outpost in E Asia from the 17th to the 19th cent. A Russo-Chinese border treaty signed at Nerchinsk in 1689 was the first treaty concluded between China and a European power; it granted the Transbaykalia area to Russia and left the Amur valley to China. The treaty also permitted Russian trading caravans to go to Beijing; Nerchinsk became an important customs and trade center on the caravan route.

Nerchinsk

 

a city and center of Nerchinsk Raion, Chita Oblast, RSFSR. Located on the left bank of the Nercha River, 7 km from the river’s confluence with the Shilka (Amur River basin) and 305 km east of Chita. It is linked by a railroad branch line (7 km) with the Priiskovaia railroad station (on the Trans-Siberian Railroad). The city has an electrical machinery plant, a liqueur and spirits distillery, and a meat-packing plant. It also has a sovkhoz technicum and a museum of local lore.

Nerchinsk was founded in 1654 by the Enisei voevoda (military governor) A. Pashkov, who named it Nerchinsk Ostrog (fortified settlement). In 1689 the Treaty of Nerchinsk with China was concluded there. The ostrog was designated a city in 1696. In 1812 the city was moved to its present location. Between 1826 and 1917, Nerchinsk was a place of political exile and hard labor. It became the the principal city of a district of Transbaikal Oblast in 1851; from 1926 to 1937 it was part of the Far East Krai.


Nerchinsk

 

a mountain range in southeastern Transbaikalia, in Chita Oblast, RSFSR. Extending southwest from the source of the Urov River (Amur River basin) to the border with the Mongolian People’s Republic, it measures approximately 200 km long. Elevations of 1,000–1,100 m predominate, with a maximum elevation of 1,477 m (Mount Kedrovnik). The range is composed of granites and coal-bearing aleurolites, sandstones, and conglomerates. In the northeastern, uplifted section it is covered with larch forests and with mountain meadows on slopes having southern exposures; in the southwestern, lower section tansy steppes alternate with birch forests.

References in periodicals archive ?
New united workers' and merchants' groups calling themselves Overseas Chinese Associations were formed in Chita, Verkhne-Udinsk, and Nerchinsk in the spring and summer of 1918 and, on 9 July, they sent delegates to Chita to set up an umbrella organization, the Eastern Siberian Overseas Chinese Association.
In The Deer and the Cauldron--the novel takes place in the seventeenth century--the story includes the border conflict with Russia when the latter was pushing into East Siberia and that led in 1689 to the Sino-Russian Treaty of Nerchinsk. The treaty is an important mark in Chinese history because it was the last conflict that did not result in defeat.
The conventional understanding of China's first treaty was the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk concerning Sino-Russia border disputes.
In ruling their far-flung, multiethnic regime, the rulers of the Qing used a variety of approaches and institutions to deal with its various "constituencies" (to use Pamela Crossley's [1999] term) both within the realm and beyond; many of these were far removed from anything resembling "tribute." Whether it was negotiating with the Russians on a basis of equality and pragmatism (resulting in the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk) or using the Buddhist imagery of the Cakravartin (wheel-turning king) in correspondence with Tibetans, it is apparent that the Qing rulers found the language and concepts of "tribute" to be only one arrow in their well-stocked quiver of foreign relations approaches.
This situation has the potential to lead to a Russian defeat and a repeat of the Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689).
This era ended with the rising powers of Manchu China and the Russians, who were eventually able to divide the continent between them, in 1689, in the Treaty of Nerchinsk. Beckwith also refers to the period since the fall of the Soviet Union as a "fourth empire," though he is clearly using the term empire loosely here.
The important border and trade provisions of the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk, for example, were settled for the most part on China's terms.
In a particularly interesting chapter, "Manchus and Russians," Gelber gives a detailed account of the Russian and Chinese maneuverings that ended with the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk, "which largely regulated Russo-Chinese relations for the next century and a half." In the longer perspective of history, this was not so much an end as a beginning--the beginning of the violent and tangled modern history of northeast Asia, where still today China, Korea, Japan, and Russia glare uneasily at
One such envoy, Tomas Pereira S.J., was sent by the boy-Emperor K'ang-hsi on behalf of the newly acceded Manchu dynasty to negotiate with the Russians at Nerchinsk, and played a key role in the historic compromise signed there in 1689.
Where previous studies have focused on the diplomatic and economic significance of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689 and Kiatka in 1727, Perdue now diverts our attention to the clever strategy of the Manchus to ensure the neutrality of Russia in dealing with the western Mongols, or the Zunghars, whose involvement with their own survival, state-formation, and empire-building sent them raiding their steppe brothers, the Khalkas and the Khoshots, who were the eastern Mongols that the Qing had already integrated into the banner institution in the seventeenth century.