The mean recoveries of rotenone in the hemolymph, midgut, ventral nerve cord
, brain, and excreta were within the ranges of 80.15 to 110.46%, 87.66 to 113.09%, 86.97 to 111.67%, 84.30 to 92.35%, and 77.76 to 104.31%, respectively; the relative standard deviations of hemolymph, midgut, ventral nerve cord
, brain, and excreta were within 3.43 to 7.21%, 3.00 to 12.79%, 4.01 to 11.40%, 5.35 to 9.55%, and 2.02 to 12.56%, respectively.
The electron-dense penetrative fibers, or tonofilaments, are also found as cytoplasmic components of the sheath cells, but not in the axonal bundles surrounding giant axons of the ventral nerve cord
of a maldanid polychaete, Asychis elongata (Hartline and Kong, 2009).
Before the 64-cell stage, the presumptive notochord/ nerve cord
cells divide into presumptive notochord cells and presumptive nerve cord
cells (purple cells and blue cells in Fig.
Interesting features of the leech nerve cord
structure can explain the story of the leech neurobiology.
Hereby, molluscan-entoproct tetraneury is not merely restricted to the existence of four longitudinal nerve cords
, but rather is defined by a nervous system that exhibits one pair of ventral (pedal) nerve cords
with associated serotonergic perikarya and commissures, as well as one pair of lateral (visceral) nerve cords
that do not run in the same plane as the pedal cords but more dorsal to them (Fig.
In early juveniles, IR was first observed in the NS of the tube feet and more faintly in the circumoral nerve ring and radial nerve cords
of the CNS (Fig.
Each focal spot impinges on a bundle of nerves that feeds into a larger nerve cord
, the researchers observed by microscopy.
Nerve system visualized through CLSM of anti-serotonin immunoreactivity shows ventral nerve cord
, apparently intra-epidermal, separated into two parts along at least part of trunk, lying between oviduct and circular muscle layer (Fig.
For example, the arthropod's nerve cord
, its version of a spinal cord, rests in the ventral side.
japonicum connects to the ventral nerve cord
through the cerebro-buccal connectives (Fig.
That protein causes the axons to grow dorsally, toward the top of the nematode, instead of taking their usual route along the side of the animal or down toward the ventral nerve cord
, the Canadian team reports in the July 22 NATURE.
Unique to the octopus arm, stereotypical bend propagation can be evoked in an isolated arm by electrically stimulating the axonal tract of the arm nerve cord
or by applying tactile stimulation to the skin or suckers.