The entire collection rests upon Levy's argument that the fundamental musical uniformity of the Gregorian melodies recorded in neumes
in so many regions of Europe in the tenth and eleventh centuries could not survive a century of oral transmission.
Palomares's copy is remarkable for its nearly exact representation of both the text and the neumes
of the medieval model at a time when few were studying liturgical books in Spain, much less their musical notation.
But will these Byzantine neumes
always be included above the Western transcriptions in publications in order to provide a more accurate interpretation especially for those who are not students of the field?
In a broad comparative way the author discusses the Latin neumes
Yet the carefully drawn neumes
and the presence of a proper Office for Thomas Becket points to Esztergom, which had a distinctive notation from the twelfth century onwards (see page 43 of the commentary for a description of these characteristic features), and comparison of this manuscript's liturgical content with other relevant sources from Esztergom definitively establish the breviary's origin (it is among the indexed sources in Dobszay's Corpus antiphonalium officii).
The former were especially important, and their neumes
receive the longest section of this article.
Zapke lists the unique features of the notation in Santa Cruz de la Seros that are recognized as "later Aquitanian": the small distance between the neume
elements of punctum and virga; the more rounded and often ligated neumes
; the presence of later liquescences; the unique shape of the custos; and the consistency and precision of the neume
As Arlt points out in his examination of the neumes
in MSS 484 and 381, many scholars have studied St.
Nelson examines the sources in exhaustive detail, pursuant to her objectives, and presents narrative analyses and tables of neumes
that identify the calligraphic variations and help define relationships among the fragments.
In a valuable contribution to the debate on the origin of neumes
, Charles Atkinson argues for a revision of the "accent theory.
e] siecle) graduel beneventain [Tournai, 1931-36]), was accompanied by a massive commentary; the staffless neumes
in PM 14 were supplemented by a twelfth-century gradual on lined staff in PM 15 (Le Codex VI.
The hymnody is presented in its original setting with neumes
above the texts.